1st Edition

Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors




ISBN 9780750307437
Published June 1, 2003 by CRC Press
316 Pages

USD $250.00

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Book Description

This book describes the basic knowledge in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics necessary for understanding the principle and implementation of accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), also known as hybrid reactors.

Since hybrid reactors may contribute to future nuclear energy production, the book begins with a discussion of the general energy problem. It proceeds by developing the elementary physics of neutron reactors, including the basic nuclear physics involved. The book then presents computational methods, with special emphasis on Monte Carlo methods. It examines the specifics of ADSR, starting from the neutron spallation source to safety features. A thorough discussion is given on the size of hybrid reactors, which follows very different constraints from that of critical reactors. The possibility to optimize the source importance is examined in detail. The discussion of the fuel evolution follows with its relevance to safety and to the waste production and incineration. The conditions for having a constant reactivity over sufficiently long lapse of time are also discussed. The book also evaluates a number of practical designs that have been proposed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the examination of proposed and possible waste transmutation policies and the role which could be played by ADSR in this context. The potential advantage of the Thorium cycle is discussed as well as different scenarios that could be used to implement it.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
THE ENERGY ISSUE
World Energy Perspectives
Renewable energies
Nuclear Energy
Costs
The Possible Role of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors
ELEMENTARY REACTOR THEORY
Interaction of Neutrons with Nuclei
Neutron Propagation
Neutron Multiplying Assemblies
Limiting Values
Reactor Control
Fuel Evolution
Basics of Waste Transmutation
ADSRS PRINCIPLES
Properties of the Multiplying Medium
PRACTICAL SIMULATION METHODS
Neutron Reaction Data Files
Deterministic Methods
Monte-Carlo Codes
Physics in MCNP
MCNP in Practice
Examples
Fuel evolution
THE NEUTRON SOURCE
Interaction of Protons with Matter
Alternative Primary Neutron Production
Experimental Determination of the Energy Gain
Two Stage Neutron Multipliers
High Intensity Accelerators
ADSR KINETICS
REACTIVITY EVOLUTIONS
Long Term Evolutions
Short Term Reactivity Excursions
FUEL REPROCESSING TECHNIQUES
Basics of Reprocessing
Wet Processes
Dry Processes
GENERIC PROPERTIES OF ADSRS
The Homogeneous Spherical Reactor
Parametric Study of Heterogeneous Systems
WASTE INCINERATION
The Thorium-Uranium Cycle
Incineration
GROUND LAYING PROPOSALS
Solid Fuel Reactors
Molten Salt Reactors
Cost Estimates
SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADSRS
Experiments
Demonstrators
APPENDIX A: DEEP UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE
Determining the Dose to the Population
Accidental Intrusion
Heat Production and Sizing of the Storage Site
Geological Hazard
An Underground Laboratory, What For?
APPENDIX B: THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND THE RMBK REACTORS
The RBMK-1000 Reactor
Events leading to the accident
The accident
APPENDIX C: BASICS OF ACCELERATOR PHYSICS
Linear Accelerators
Cyclotrons
Superconductive solutions
Space Charge Limitations
INDEX

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