1st Edition

Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

By H Nifenecker, O Meplan, S David Copyright 2003
    326 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Continue Shopping

    This book describes the basic knowledge in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics necessary for understanding the principle and implementation of accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), also known as hybrid reactors.

    Since hybrid reactors may contribute to future nuclear energy production, the book begins with a discussion of the general energy problem. It proceeds by developing the elementary physics of neutron reactors, including the basic nuclear physics involved. The book then presents computational methods, with special emphasis on Monte Carlo methods. It examines the specifics of ADSR, starting from the neutron spallation source to safety features. A thorough discussion is given on the size of hybrid reactors, which follows very different constraints from that of critical reactors. The possibility to optimize the source importance is examined in detail. The discussion of the fuel evolution follows with its relevance to safety and to the waste production and incineration. The conditions for having a constant reactivity over sufficiently long lapse of time are also discussed. The book also evaluates a number of practical designs that have been proposed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the examination of proposed and possible waste transmutation policies and the role which could be played by ADSR in this context. The potential advantage of the Thorium cycle is discussed as well as different scenarios that could be used to implement it.

    INTRODUCTION
    THE ENERGY ISSUE
    World Energy Perspectives
    Renewable energies
    Nuclear Energy
    Costs
    The Possible Role of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors
    ELEMENTARY REACTOR THEORY
    Interaction of Neutrons with Nuclei
    Neutron Propagation
    Neutron Multiplying Assemblies
    Limiting Values
    Reactor Control
    Fuel Evolution
    Basics of Waste Transmutation
    ADSRS PRINCIPLES
    Properties of the Multiplying Medium
    PRACTICAL SIMULATION METHODS
    Neutron Reaction Data Files
    Deterministic Methods
    Monte-Carlo Codes
    Physics in MCNP
    MCNP in Practice
    Examples
    Fuel evolution
    THE NEUTRON SOURCE
    Interaction of Protons with Matter
    Alternative Primary Neutron Production
    Experimental Determination of the Energy Gain
    Two Stage Neutron Multipliers
    High Intensity Accelerators
    ADSR KINETICS
    REACTIVITY EVOLUTIONS
    Long Term Evolutions
    Short Term Reactivity Excursions
    FUEL REPROCESSING TECHNIQUES
    Basics of Reprocessing
    Wet Processes
    Dry Processes
    GENERIC PROPERTIES OF ADSRS
    The Homogeneous Spherical Reactor
    Parametric Study of Heterogeneous Systems
    WASTE INCINERATION
    The Thorium-Uranium Cycle
    Incineration
    GROUND LAYING PROPOSALS
    Solid Fuel Reactors
    Molten Salt Reactors
    Cost Estimates
    SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADSRS
    Experiments
    Demonstrators
    APPENDIX A: DEEP UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE
    Determining the Dose to the Population
    Accidental Intrusion
    Heat Production and Sizing of the Storage Site
    Geological Hazard
    An Underground Laboratory, What For?
    APPENDIX B: THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND THE RMBK REACTORS
    The RBMK-1000 Reactor
    Events leading to the accident
    The accident
    APPENDIX C: BASICS OF ACCELERATOR PHYSICS
    Linear Accelerators
    Cyclotrons
    Superconductive solutions
    Space Charge Limitations
    INDEX

    Biography

    H Nifenecker, O Meplan, S David