Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

1st Edition

By H Nifenecker, O Meplan, S David

CRC Press

316 pages

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pub: 2003-06-01
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Description

This book describes the basic knowledge in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics necessary for understanding the principle and implementation of accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), also known as hybrid reactors.

Since hybrid reactors may contribute to future nuclear energy production, the book begins with a discussion of the general energy problem. It proceeds by developing the elementary physics of neutron reactors, including the basic nuclear physics involved. The book then presents computational methods, with special emphasis on Monte Carlo methods. It examines the specifics of ADSR, starting from the neutron spallation source to safety features. A thorough discussion is given on the size of hybrid reactors, which follows very different constraints from that of critical reactors. The possibility to optimize the source importance is examined in detail. The discussion of the fuel evolution follows with its relevance to safety and to the waste production and incineration. The conditions for having a constant reactivity over sufficiently long lapse of time are also discussed. The book also evaluates a number of practical designs that have been proposed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the examination of proposed and possible waste transmutation policies and the role which could be played by ADSR in this context. The potential advantage of the Thorium cycle is discussed as well as different scenarios that could be used to implement it.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

THE ENERGY ISSUE

World Energy Perspectives

Renewable energies

Nuclear Energy

Costs

The Possible Role of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

ELEMENTARY REACTOR THEORY

Interaction of Neutrons with Nuclei

Neutron Propagation

Neutron Multiplying Assemblies

Limiting Values

Reactor Control

Fuel Evolution

Basics of Waste Transmutation

ADSRS PRINCIPLES

Properties of the Multiplying Medium

PRACTICAL SIMULATION METHODS

Neutron Reaction Data Files

Deterministic Methods

Monte-Carlo Codes

Physics in MCNP

MCNP in Practice

Examples

Fuel evolution

THE NEUTRON SOURCE

Interaction of Protons with Matter

Alternative Primary Neutron Production

Experimental Determination of the Energy Gain

Two Stage Neutron Multipliers

High Intensity Accelerators

ADSR KINETICS

REACTIVITY EVOLUTIONS

Long Term Evolutions

Short Term Reactivity Excursions

FUEL REPROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Basics of Reprocessing

Wet Processes

Dry Processes

GENERIC PROPERTIES OF ADSRS

The Homogeneous Spherical Reactor

Parametric Study of Heterogeneous Systems

WASTE INCINERATION

The Thorium-Uranium Cycle

Incineration

GROUND LAYING PROPOSALS

Solid Fuel Reactors

Molten Salt Reactors

Cost Estimates

SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADSRS

Experiments

Demonstrators

APPENDIX A: DEEP UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE

Determining the Dose to the Population

Accidental Intrusion

Heat Production and Sizing of the Storage Site

Geological Hazard

An Underground Laboratory, What For?

APPENDIX B: THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND THE RMBK REACTORS

The RBMK-1000 Reactor

Events leading to the accident

The accident

APPENDIX C: BASICS OF ACCELERATOR PHYSICS

Linear Accelerators

Cyclotrons

Superconductive solutions

Space Charge Limitations

INDEX

About the Series

Series in Fundamental and Applied Nuclear Physics

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI051000
SCIENCE / Nuclear Physics
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics