Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control

3rd Edition

By Edward G. Schilling, Dean V. Neubauer

Chapman and Hall/CRC

842 pages | 160 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2017-05-03
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Description

Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control, Third Edition presents the state of the art in the methodology of sampling while integrating both theory and best practices. It discusses various standards, including those from the ISO, MIL-STD and ASTM and explores how to set quality levels. The book also includes problems at the end of each chapter with solutions. This edition improves upon theprevious editions especially in the areas of software applications and compliance sampling plans.

New to the Third Edition:

  • Numerous Microsoft Excel templates to address sampling plans are used.
  • Commercial software applications are discussed at the end of many chapters.
  • Discussion of quick switching systems has been expanded to account for the considerable recent activity in this area.
  • Added discussion of zero acceptance number chained quick switching systems.

 

 

Reviews

Praise for the Second Edition:

… a very well-presented book, covering the classic topics of inspection sampling in a thorough, lucid and insightful way. … [It] is an elegant and comprehensive resource for the knowledgeable user, and so well written that the beginner will also find it congenial and rewarding…

John Shade, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society

[The] first edition of Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control is a classic, and is considered by many as a "must have book" for anyone working in quality control. … With the current expectations of continuous improvement, [and] rigorous process control …some may tend to think that acceptance sampling is not as important as it was in the past. However, with a world economy and ever improving technology, the relationship between customers and suppliers has changed dramatically with distance, cultures, and language all having an impact. This makes acceptance sampling as important as ever and this book as relevant as ever.

Theresa L. Utlaut, Journal of Quality Technology

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

Acceptance Quality Control

Acceptance Control and Process Control

Process Quality Control

Background of Acceptance Quality Control

Top Ten Reasons for Acceptance Sampling

References

Problems

2 PROBABILITY AND THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

Probability

Classical Definition

Empirical Definition

Subjective Definition

Random Samples and Random Numbers

Counting Possibilities

Probability Calculus

The Operating Characteristic Curve

Software Applications

Excel

Minitab

References

Problems

3 PROBABILITY FUNCTIONS

Probability Distributions

Measures of Distribution Functions

Hypergeometric Distribution

Binomial Distribution

Poisson Distribution

f-Binomial Distribution

Negative Binomial Distribution

Exponential and Continuous Distributions

Weibull Distribution

Normal Distribution

Summary of Distributions

Tables of Distributions

Hypergeometric Tables

Binomial Tables

Poisson Tables

Negative Binomial Tables

Normal Distribution Tables

Summary

Useful Approximations

Tests of Fit

Software Applications

Excel

Minitab

References

Problems

4 CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY

Average Run Length of Type B Plans

Samples Size and Lot Size

Effect of Inspection Error

Rectification

Curtailment

Tolerance and Confidence Intervals

Levels and Risks

Choosing Quality Levels

Classification of Defects

Measures of Sampling Plans: Terminology

Graphs of Measures

Specifying a Plan

Software Applications

Minitab

References

Problems

5 SINGLE SAMPLING BY ATTRIBUTES

Operation

Selection

Table of Poisson Unity Values

Binomial Nomograph

f- Binomial Nomograph

Thorndyke Chart

Hypergeometric Tables

Measures

Software Applications

Excel

Minitab

Statgraphics

References

Problems

6 DOUBLE AND MULTIPLE SAMPLING BY ATTRIBUTES

Operation

Double Sampling

Multiple Sampling

Selection

Measures

Double Sampling

Multiple Sampling

Further Considerations

Software Applications

Excel

Minitab

Statgraphics

References

Problems

7 SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING BY ATTRIBUTES

Operation

Selection

Measures

Sequential Sampling for Defects per Unit

Software Applications

Excel

References

Problems

8 VARIABLES SAMPLING FOR PROCESS PARAMETER

Single Sampling for Process Parameter

Acceptance Control Charts

Sequential Plans for Process Parameter ( Known)

Sequential Plans for Process Parameter ( Unknown)

Cumulative Sum Charts

References

Problems

9 BULK SAMPLING

Construction of the Sample

Estimation

Sampling Plans

Simple Random Sampling of Unique Lot (Components of Variance Unknown)

Sampling from Stream of Lots

Estimation of Testing and Reduction Variances

Estimation of Segment and Increment Variances

Application of Plan to Stream of Lots

References

Problems

10 SAMPLING BY VARIABLES FOR PROPORTION NONCONFORMING

Specification Limits

Assumptions and Theory

Operation

Method

k Method

Double Specification Limits

Selection

Tables

Formulas

Jacobson Nomograph for Plan Selection

Measures

Jacobson Nomograph for Operating Characteristics

Calculation:  Known

Calculation:  Unknown

Double Specification Limits

Measures of Performance

M Method

Plans Based on Sample Range

Double Sampling by Variables

Tolerance Intervals and Variables Plans for Percent Nonconforming

Sequential Plans for Proportion Nonconforming

Further Considerations

Derivation of n, k Formulas

Need for Normality

Software Applications

Minitab

Statgraphics

References

Problems

11 ATTRIBUTES SAMPLING SCHEMES

Sampling Schemes

Quick Switching Systems

TNT Plans

Mil-Std-105E and Derivative Standards

Operation

Selection

Measures

Scheme Properties

Implementation of MIL-STD-105E

Matching Individual Sampling Plans to MIL-STD-105E System Performance

MIL-STD-105 Derivatives

Further Considerations

Software Applications

Minitab

Snap Sampling Plans!

Statgraphics

References

Problems

12 VARIABLES SAMPLING SCHEMES

Mil-Std-414

Operation

Selection

Measures

Implementation of Form 2

Implementation of Form 1

Implementation of Plans for Range and Variability Known

Match Between MIL-STD-414 and MIL-STD-105E

Conversion of MIL-STD-414 to ANSI/ASQ Z1.9

MIL-STD-414 Derivatives

Further Considerations

Software Applications

Excel

Minitab

Statgraphics

References

Problems

13 SPECIAL PLANS AND PROCEDURES

No-Calc Plans

Lot Plot Plans

Narrow Limit Gauging

Mixed Variables - Attributes Plan

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mixed Plans

Generalized Mixed Dependent Procedure

Measures: Independent Mixed Plan

Measures: Dependent Mixed Plan

Mil-Std-414 Dependent Mixed Plans

Comparison of Independent and Dependent Mixed Plans

Comparison of Mixed and Other Type Plans

References

Problems

14 SERIES OF LOTS: RECTIFICATION SCHEMES

Single-Sampling AOQL Plan

Dodge-Romig Sampling Scheme

Operation

Selection

Measures

Further Considerations

Constructing LTPD Plan With Minimum ATI

Constructing AOQL Plan With Minimum ATI

Anscombe Rectifying Inspection Procedure

Operation

Selection

Measures

Credit-Based Schemes

Dodge-Romig Plan Derivatives

Software Applications

Excel

Snap Sampling Plans!

References

Problems

15 CONTINUOUS SAMPLING PLANS

Dodge Continuous Plans

Dodge CSP-1

Dodge-Torrey CSP-2 and CSP-3

Measures of CSP-1, 2, 3

Stopping Rules and Selection of CSP-1 Plans

Multi-Level Plans

Tightened Multi-Level Plans

Block Continuous Plans

Wald-Wolfowitz Plan

Girshick Plan

MIL-STD-1235B

MIL-STD-1235B Derivatives

Software Applications

Excel

Snap Sampling Plans!

References

Problems

16 CUMULATIVE RESULTS PLANS

Skip-Lot Sampling Plans

SkSP-1

SkSP-2

Chain Sampling Plans

ChSP-1

Two-Stage Plans

Deferred Sentencing Schemes

Demerit Rating Plan

Cumulative Results Criterion Plan (CRC)

Software Applications

Excel

References

Problems

17 COMPLIANCE SAMPLING

Lot Sensitive Sampling Plan (LSP)

Procedure

Protection

Producer’s Risk

Examples of LSP Applications

Further Considerations

Tightened-Normal-Tightened (TNT) Scheme

Procedure

Protection

Selection

Quick Switching System (QSS)

Mil-Std-1916

Structure

Operation

Implementation

Measures

Further Considerations

Simplified Grand Lot Procedure

Simon’s Approach

Simplified Procedure: Attributes

Simplified Procedure: Variables

Continuing Series of Lots

Further Considerations

Accept on Zero (AoZ) Plans

U. S. Department of Defense Approach

Squeglia Plans

AOZ and AQL Plans

Chain Sampling Alternative

The Zero Acceptance Number Chained Quick Switching System

Summary

Software Applications

Excel

LSP Plans

TNT Plans

QSS Plans

MIL-STD-1916 Plans

Chain Sampling Alternative Plans

Zero Acceptance Number Chained Quick Switching System Plans

Minitab

Snap Sampling Plans!

LSP Plans

Squeglia Plans

Statgraphics

MIL-STD-1916 Plans

References

Problems

18 RELIABILITY SAMPLING

Censored Sampling

Variables Plans for Life Testing and Reliability

Handbook H-108

Operation

Failure Terminated

Time Terminated

Sequential

Proportion Failing by Specified Time

Selection

Example of H-108 Application

Failure Terminated

Time Terminated

Sequential

Proportion of Lot Failing by Specified Time

Measures

Further Considerations

Technical Report TR 7

Mean Life Criterion

Hazard Rate Criterion

Reliable Life Criterion

TR 7 Tables

Operation

TR 7 with the Mil-Std-105E System

Further Considerations

References

Problems

19 ADMINISTRATION OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING

Selection and Implementation of a Sampling Procedure

Determining Quality Levels

Setting AQL

Setting AOQL

Setting IQ

Setting LTPD (or LQ)

Relation of Levels

Setting PQL and CQL

Economic Considerations

Mandatory Standards

Basic Principle of Administration

References

Problems

APPENDIX TABLES

ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

About the Authors

Dr. Edward G. Schilling was a professor emeritus of statistics at the Center for Quality and Applied Statistics, at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where he had been the director of the center and the chair of the Graduate Statistics Department.

Before joining RIT, he was the manager of the lighting quality operation for the Lighting Business Group of General Electric Company. He received his BA and MBA from State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, and his MS and PhD in statistics from Rutgers University. He had been on the faculties of SUNY at Buffalo, Rutgers University, and Case Western Reserve University. He had extensive industrial experience in quality engineering at Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and the Carborundum Co., and in statistical consulting and quality management at General Electric. Dr. Schilling was a fellow of the American Society for Quality (ASQ), the American Statistical Association (ASA), and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). He was also a member of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and the American Economic Association. He was registered as a professional engineer in California and certified by ASQ as a quality and a reliability engineer. He served as the founding series editor for the Marcel Dekker series of books on quality and reliability, and published extensively in the field of quality

control and statistics.

Dr. Schilling was the Shewhart Medalist in 1983, the recipient of the E.L. Grant Award in 1999, the Freund–Marquardt Medal in 2005, and the Distinguished Service Medal in 2002; he was the first person to receive the Brumbaugh Award four times from the ASQ. He was also the recipient of the Ellis R. Ott Award in 1984 for his contributions to quality management from the Metropolitan New York Section of that society and was honored by being invited to present the 1986 W.J. Youden Memorial Address at the Joint ASQ/ASA Annual Fall Technical Conference. He was the recipient of the H.F. Dodge Award by the ASTM in 1993 and the Award of Merit in 2002.

Dr. Schilling was an associate editor of the fifth edition of Juran’s Quality Control Handbook. His book, Process Quality Control (with E.R. Ott and D.V. Neubauer), is among the leading texts in the field.

Dean V. Neubauer is an Engineering Fellow in the Process Engineering Directorate in the Manufacturing, Technology and Engineering (MTE) Division at Corning Incorporated. He has worked for Corning since 1981 and has been involved in projects in every major business over this time. He has fifteen U.S. patents for compositional work on a variety of materials and devices for the manufacture of display glass. His background includes degrees in statistics from Iowa State University and Rochester Institute of Technology.

Outside of Corning, Dean has taught as an Adjunct Professor in the M.S. program for the Center for Quality and Applied Statistics at R.I.T. since 1992. He also participates on the ASTM E-11 Committee on Quality and Statistics where he is a Past Chairman and is a member of the ASTM International Committee on Standards (COS). Dean is a book reviewer for the Technometrics and Journal of Quality Technology journals, serves on the Management Committee of the Technometrics journal, serves on the Editorial Board of the Quality Engineering journal, is the co-author of Process Quality Control, 4th Edition with the late Dr. Edward G. Schilling. He is also a former U.S. Lead Delegate to the ISO Technical Committee 69 on Statistical Methods Subcommittee SC5 on Acceptance Sampling. In this role, he was responsible for the review of ISO, as well as, ANSI/ASQ Z acceptance sampling standards.

Dean was elected a Fellow of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) in 2000 and is a Certified Quality Engineer. Dean is also a Past Chair of the ASQ’s Chemical and Process Industries Division and a Past Chair of the Corning-Elmira ASQ Section. He is a recipient of the 2003 Shewell Award from ASQ and the 2011 Harold F. Dodge Award from ASTM. He has also been a Member of the American Statistical Association since 1979 and is an accredited professional statistician (PStat™). In 1993, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society in London, England and holds the certification of Chartered Statistician (CStat). In 2010, he was given the Award of Merit carrying the title of Fellow from the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS053000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
MAT029000
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
TEC032000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Quality Control