This publication is intended as a guide to common diagnostic, operative and percutaneous techniques used in creating and maintaining vascular access for hemodialysis. When writing the text, the authors have focused on surgeons in training, fellows, interventional radiologists and clinically active nephrologists. Dialysis nurses and other clinicians involved in the care of end stage renal disease and dialysis patients will also greatly benefit from this handbook. This 2nd edition of the text contains expanded sections on ESRD, access surveillance and surgical and diagnostic devices, as well as new sections on peritoneal and dual lumen catheter placement, commonly used drugs and dialysis, hemo- and peritoneal dialysis techniques and CPT and ICD coding for statistical and billing purposes. These changes reflect the highly technical nature of clinical management in this evolving specialty.