Active Control of Noise and Vibration: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Active Control of Noise and Vibration

2nd Edition

By Colin Hansen, Scott Snyder, Xiaojun Qiu, Laura Brooks, Danielle Moreau

CRC Press

1,553 pages

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Since the publication of the first edition, considerable progress has been made in the development and application of active noise control (ANC) systems, particularly in the propeller aircraft and automotive industries. Treating the active control of both sound and vibration in a unified way, this second edition of Active Control of Noise and Vibration continues to combine coverage of fundamental principles with the most recent theoretical and practical developments.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Revised, expanded, and updated information in every chapter
  • Advances in feedforward control algorithms, DSP hardware, and applications
  • Practical application examples of active control of noise propagating in ducts
  • The use of a sound intensity cost function, model reference control, sensing radiation modes, modal filtering, and a comparison of the effectiveness of various sensing strategies
  • New material on feedback control of sound transmission into enclosed spaces
  • New material on model uncertainty, experimental determination of the system model, optimization of the truncated model, collocated actuators and sensors, biologically inspired control, and a discussion of centralised versus de-centralised control
  • A completely revised chapter on control system implementation
  • New material on parametric array loudspeakers, turbulence filtering, and virtual sensing
  • More material on smart structures, electrorheological fluids, and magnetorheological fluids

Integrating the related disciplines of active noise control and active vibration control, this comprehensive two-volume set explains how to design and implement successful active control systems in practice. It also details the pitfalls one must avoid to ensure a reliable and stable system.


"The fact is that there is not one work that is as comprehensive and detailed as this one in the realm of ANVC. Anyone considering fundamental or applied research work in this field must take the plunge and buy this outstanding reference."

— Dominique J. Chéenne in Noise Control Engineering Journal

Praise for the Previous Edition

"… the treatment is attractive and meticulous and accurate … appears to be a good buy."

Bulletin of the Institute of Acoustics

"… a very good and complete reference on the subject."

The Structural Engineer

Table of Contents

Volume I


Introduction and Potential Applications

Overview of Active Control Systems


Foundations of Acoustics and Vibration

Acoustic Wave Equation

Structural Mechanics Fundamentals

Vibration of Continuous Systems

Structural Sound Radiation, Sound Propagation and Green’s Functions

Impedance and Intensity


Spectral Analysis

Digital Filtering

Discrete Fourier Analysis

Signal Types


Important Frequency Domain Functions


Modal Analysis


Modal Analysis: Analytical

Modal Analysis: Experimental

Modal Amplitude Determination from System Response Measurements


Modern Control Review


System Arrangements

State-Space System Models for Feedback Control

Discrete Time System Models for Feedback Control

Frequency Domain Analysis of Poles, Zeroes and System Response

Controllability and Observability

Control Law Design via Pole Placement

Optimal Control

Observer Design

Random Processes Revisited

Optimal Observers: Kalman Filter

Combined Control Law/Observer: Compensator Design

Adaptive Feedback Control


Feedforward Control System Design


What Does Feedforward Control Do?

Fixed Characteristic Feedforward Control Systems

Waveform Synthesis

Non-Recursive (FIR) Deterministic Gradient Descent Algorithm

LMS Algorithm

Single-Channel Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

The Multiple Input, Multiple Output Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

Other Useful Algorithms Based on the LMS Algorithm

Cancellation Path Transfer Function Estimation

Leaky Algorithms and Output Effort Constraint

Adaptive Filtering in The Frequency Domain

Adaptive Signal Processing Using Recursive (IIR) Filters

Application of Adaptive IIR Filters to Active Control Systems

Alternative Approach to Using IIR Filters

Adaptive Filtering Using Artificial Neural Networks

Neural Network-Based Feedforward Active Control Systems

Adaptive Filtering Using a Genetic Algorithm


Active Control of Noise Propagating in Ducts


Control System Implementation

Harmonic (or Periodic) Plane Waves

Higher-Order Modes

Acoustic Measurements in Ducts

Sound Radiated from IC Engine Exhaust Outlets

Active / Passive Mufflers

Control of Pressure Pulsations in Liquid Filled Ducts

Active Headsets and Hearing Protectors


Volume II

Active Control of Free-Field Sound Radiation


Control of Harmonic Sound Pressure at a Point

Minimum Acoustic Power Output of Two Free-Field Monopole Sources

Active Control of Acoustic Radiation from Multiple Primary Monopole Sources Using Multiple Control Monopole Sources

Effect of Transducer Location

Reference Sensor Location Considerations

Active Control of Harmonic Sound Radiation from Planar Structures: General Problem Formulation

Example: Control of Sound Radiation from a Rectangular Plate

Electrical Transformer Noise Control

A Closer Look At Control Mechanisms and a Common Link among All Active Control Systems

Minimising Sound Radiation By Minimising Acoustic Radiation Modes

Some Notes on Approaching the Design of an Active Control System for Sound Radiation from a Vibrating Surface

Active Control of Free-Field Random Noise

Active Control of Impact Acceleration Noise

Feedback Control of Sound Radiation From Vibrating Structures


Active Control of Enclosed Sound Fields


Control of Harmonic Sound Fields in Rigid Enclosures at Discrete Locations

Global Control of Sound Fields in Rigid Enclosures

Control of Sound Fields in Coupled Enclosures at Discrete Locations

Minimisation of Acoustic Potential Energy in Coupled Enclosures

Calculation of Optimal Control Source Volume Velocities Using Boundary Element Methods

Control Mechanisms

Influence of Control Source and Error Sensor Arrangement

Controlling Vibration to Control Sound Transmission

Influence of Modal Density

Control of Sound at a Point in Enclosures with High Modal Densities

State-Space Models of Acoustic Systems

Aircraft Interior Noise

Automobile Interior Noise


Feedforward Control of Vibration in Beams and Plates

Infinite Beam

Finite Beams

Active Control of Vibration in a Semi-Infinite Plate


Feedback Control of Flexible Structures Described in Terms of Modes


Modal Control

Independent Modal Space Control

Model Reduction

Effect of Model Uncertainty

Experimental Determination of the System Model through Subspace Model Identification

Sensor and Actuator Placement Considerations

Centralised Versus Decentralised and Distributed Control


Vibration Isolation


Feedback Control

Applications of Feedback Control

Feedforward Control: Basic SDOF System

Feedforward Control: Single Isolator between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Beam

Feedforward Control: Multiple Isolators between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Panel

Feedforward Control: Multiple Isolators between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Cylinder

Feedforward Control: Summary


Control System Implementation

Hierarchy of Active Control System Implementation

Analogue Circuit Controllers

Digital Controllers

An Example of Active Control System Implementation


Sound Sources and Sound Sensors



Omni-Directional Microphones

Directional Microphones

Turbulence Filtering Sensors

Virtual Sensing Algorithms for Active Noise Control


Vibration Sensors and Vibration Sources


Velocity Transducers

Displacement Transducers

Strain Sensors

Hydraulic Actuators

Pneumatic Actuators

Proof Mass (or Inertial) Actuator

Electrodynamic and Electromagnetic Actuators

Magnetostrictive Actuators

Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

Piezoelectric (Electrostrictive) Actuators

Smart Structures

Electro-Rheological Fluids

Magneto-Rheological Fluids


Appendix A Brief Review of Some Results of Linear Algebra

Matrices and Vectors

Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication by a Scalar

Multiplication of Matrices



Matrix Inverses

Rank of a Matrix

Positive and Non-Negative Definite Matrices

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors


Vector Norms



About the Authors

Colin Hansen is professor emeritus in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Adelaide. He established the ANVC group at the university in 1987 and led the group until his retirement at the end of 2011. The group is internationally recognized for its extensive contributions to the advancement of scientific knowledge in many aspects of active noise and vibration control. In 2012 he was made the 15th honorary fellow of the International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration (IIAV) in recognition of his "outstanding contributions to scientific knowledge in acoustics, noise and vibration" and in 2009 was awarded the Rayleigh Medal by the British Institute of Acoustics for "outstanding contributions to acoustics".

Scott Snyder is currently pro vice-chancellor, strategy and planning, at Charles Darwin University (CDU). He has also been the Executive Director, Corporate Services and an Executive Dean at that institution. Prior to moving to CDU, Snyder was a member of academic staff in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Adelaide, and later head of IT Services at that organization. His Ph.D. was in the area of active noise and vibration control and he spent a number of years undertaking further research on ANVC in Japan and at the University of Adelaide prior to being appointed to Academic Staff.

Xiaojun Qiu is a professor in acoustics and signal processing and head of the Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University. He worked with Colin Hansen in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Adelaide, Australia, as a research fellow from 1997 to 2002. He is a member of the Audio Engineering Society and the International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration. He has authored and co-authored two books and more than 250 technical papers, and holds more than 70 patents on audio acoustics and audio signal processing.

Laura Brooks is an adjunct lecturer at the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Adelaide. She was selected by Engineers Australia for inclusion in the list of Australia's Most Inspiring Young Engineers in 2005 and was awarded the 2006 Fulbright Postgraduate Award in Engineering. Her research interests include aeroacoustics, ocean acoustics, seismic noise, vibrations, active control, signal processing, and engineering education.

Danielle Moreau is a postdoctoral research associate at the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Adelaide, where she received a University Postdoctoral Research Medal for her Ph.D. research on virtual sensing in active control. The focus of Dr Moreau’s current work is on the understanding and control of flow-induced noise. She has more than 20 publications and has given seminars to research groups in Japan and the United States.

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