1600 Pages
    by Routledge

    Millions of us make use of psychoactive—or mind-altering—drugs. Such drugs, both legal and otherwise, can cause pleasure or pain (or both). So, too, can sex, gambling, shopping, dieting, exercise, and Internet use. ‘Addiction’ or ‘dependence’ on substances like alcohol, tobacco, illicit and prescribed drugs, and on other risky behaviours, is strongly associated with a broad range of personal and social consequences. They can greatly enhance life—or ruin it. The heavy and chronic use of legal and illegal drugs, as well as other compulsive or problematic behaviours, are associated with massive health and social problems. Health problems related to addiction include dependence, injury, overdose, foetal damage, cancers, liver disease, and premature mortality, while social problems include crime and disorder, debt, family violence, poverty, and industrial inefficiency.

    The addictions field is very wide ranging, and covers a considerable number of psychoactive substances and compulsive behaviours. However, much of the literature remains inaccessible or is highly specialized and compartmentalized, so that it is hard for many of those who are interested to obtain an informed and comprehensive overview of issues and evidence. The sheer scale of the growth in addiction research output—and the breadth of the field—makes this four-volume collection especially timely and meets the demand for a wide ranging, multidisciplinary perspective on this fascinating and important subject.

    The editors have collected material under the following sections and, together with their newly written introduction, this Routledge Major Work, a new title in the Major Themes in Health and Social Welfare series, will enable users to make sense of the wide range of approaches, theories, and concepts that have informed the subject to date:

    • concepts of addiction
    • alcohol
    • tobacco
    • illicit drugs
    • other addictive behaviours such as compulsive gambling, sex, exercise, shopping, Internet use and dieting.

    Edited by two of the world’s leading authorities on addiction and risky behaviours, Addiction will be welcomed by professionals and policymakers in health and social services. It will also be an invaluable reference resource for students and scholars working in the field of addiction, as well as those whose courses in a wide range of allied disciplines—such as nursing, medicine, psychology, education, social work, and law—increasingly require an understanding of the issues this collection explores.

    Concepts of Addiction
    1. S. Bacon (1943) ‘Sociology and the Problems of Alcohol: Foundations for a Sociologic Study of Drinking Behaviour’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 4: 402–45.
    2. W. Bill (1955) ‘Bill’s Story’, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How Many Thousands of Men and Women Recovered From Alcoholism (Alcoholics Anonymous Publishers).
    3. N. Eddy et al. (1967) ‘Drug Dependence: Its Significance and Characteristics’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 32: 721–33.
    4. D. L. Davies (1974) ‘Is Alcoholism Really a Disease?’, Contemporary Drug Problems, X: 197–212.
    5. G. M. Heyman et al. (1996) ‘Resolving the Contradictions of Addiction’, Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 19: 561–74, 606–10.
    6. S. Peele (2001) ‘What Addiction Is and Is Not: The Impact of Mistaken Notions of Addiction’, Addiction Research, 8: 599–607.
    7. J. Orford (2001) ‘Addiction as Excessive Appetite’, Addiction, 96: 15–31.
    8. F. Weiss and L. J. Porrino (2002) ‘Behavioral Neurobiology of Alcohol Addiction: Recent Advances and Challenges’, The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 9: 3332–7.
    9. H. J. Shaffer et al. (2004) ‘Towards a Syndrome Model of Addiction: Multiple Expressions, Common Eitiology’, Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12: 367–74.
    Part 1: Patterns of Use and Problems
    10. E. L. Wynder and E. A. Graham (1950) ‘Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiologic Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 143, 4: 329–36.
    11. R. Doll and A. B. Hill (1950) ‘Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung: Preliminary Report’, British Medical Journal, 2: 739–48.
    12. M. A. Russell (1971) ‘Cigarette Smoking: Natural History of a Dependence Disorder’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 44, 1: 1–16.
    13. US Surgeon’s General (1986) The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking (US Department of Health and Human Services).
    14. D. Ziedonis, J. N. Williams, and D. Smelson (2003) ‘Serious Mental Illness and Tobacco Addiction: A Model Programme to Address This Common But Neglected Issue’, The American Journal of Medical Science, 326: 223–30.
    15. G. F. Wayne, G. N. Connolly, and J. E. Henningfield (2004) ‘Assessing Internal Tobacco Industry Knowledge of the Neurobiology of Tobacco Dependence’, Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 6: 927–40.
    Part 2: Treatment Approaches
    16. M. A. H. Russell et al. (1979) ‘Effect of General Practitioners’ Advice Against Smoking’, British Medical Journal, 2: 231–5.
    17. M. J. Jarvis et al. (1982) ‘Randomised Controlled Trial of Nicotine Chewing-Gum’, British Medical Journal, 285: 537–40.
    Part 3: Control Policies
    18. King James I of England and VI of Scotland (1604) Counterblaste to Tobacco (London).
    19. P. M. Lantz et al. (2000) ‘Investing in Youth Tobacco Control: A Review of Smoking Prevention and Control Strategies’, Tobacco Control, 9: 47–63.
    20. R. Borland et al. (2006) ‘Support For and Reported Compliance With Smoke-Free Restaurants and Bars By Smokers in Four Countries: Findings From the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey’, Tobacco Control, 15 (Suppl 3): 34–41.
    Part 1: Patterns of Use and Problems
    21. F. E. Anstie (1862) ‘Is it Food, Medicine, or Poison?’, Cornhill Magazine, 5: 707–16.
    22. W. C. Sullivan (1899) ‘A Note on the Influence of Maternal Inebriety on the Offspring’, Journal of Mental Science, 45: 489–503.
    23. E. M. Jellinek (1945) ‘Classics in the Alcohol Literature: A Specimen of the Sixteenth-Century German Drink Literature—Obsopoeus’ Art of Drinking’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 5: 647–61.
    24. E. M. Jellinek (1952) ‘Phases of Alcohol Addiction’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13: 673–84.
    25. D. L. Davies (1962) ‘Normal Drinking in Recovered Alcohol Addicts’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 23: 94–104.
    26. G. Knupfer (1967) ‘The Epidemiology of Problem Drinking’, American Journal of Public Health, 57, 6: 973–86.
    27. D. Cahalan and I. H. Cisin (1968) ‘American Drinking Practices: Summary of Findings From a National Probability Sample. II. Measurement of Massed Versus Spaced Drinking’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 29: 642–56.
    28. K. L. Jones and D. W. Smith (1973) ‘Recognition of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Early Infancy’, Lancet, 2: 999–1001.
    29. R. Room (1975) ‘Normative Perspectives on Alcohol Use and Problems’, Journal of Drug Issues, 5: 358–68.
    30. G. Edwards and M. Gross (1976) ‘Alcohol Dependence: Provisional Description of a Clinical Syndrome’, British Medical Journal, 1: 1058–61.
    31. D. Celentano and D. McQueen (1978) ‘Reliability and Validity of Estimators of Alcohol Prevalence’, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39: 869–78.
    32. O.-J. Skog (1985) ‘Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: A Theory of the Distribution of Alcohol Consumption’, British Journal of Addiction, 80: 83–99.
    33. N. Kreitman (1986) ‘Alcohol Consumption and the Prevention Paradox’, British Journal of Addiction, 81: 353–63.
    34. R. W. Wilsnack et al. (2000) ‘Gender Differences in Alcohol Consumption and Adverse Drinking Consequences: Cross-Cultural Patterns’, Addiction, 95, 2: 261–5.
    35. E. Single et al. (1998) ‘The Economic Cost of Alcohol, Tobacco and Illicit Drugs in Canada, 1992’, Addiction, 93, 7: 991–1006.
    Part 2: Treatment Approaches
    36. G. Lolli (1952) ‘Alcoholism, 1941–1951: A Survey of Activities in Research, Education and Therapy. V. The Treatment of Alcohol Addiction’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 3: 461–71.
    37. M. Chafetz et al. (1962) ‘Establishing Treatment Relations with Alcoholics’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 134: 395–409.
    38. M. B. Sobell and L. C. Sobell (1973) ‘Alcoholics Treated by Individualized Behavior Therapy: One Year Treatment Outcomes’, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11: 599–618.
    39. C. Emrick (1975) ‘A Review of Psychologically Oriented Treatment of Alcoholism: II. The Relative Effectiveness of Different Treatment Approaches and the Effectiveness of Treatment Versus No Treatment’, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36, 1: 88–99.
    40. J. Orford et al. (1976) ‘Abstinence or Control: The Outcome for Excessive Drinkers Two Years After Consultation’, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 31–8.
    41. W. Miller (1983) ‘Motivational Interviewing With Problem Drinkers’, Behavioural Psychotherapy, 11: 147–72.
    42. J. O. Prochaska and C. C. DiClemente (1986) ‘Toward a Comprehensive Model of Change’, in W. R. Miller and N. Heather (eds.), Treating Addictive Disorders: Processes of Change (Applied Clinical Psychology Series) (Plenum Press), pp. 3–27.
    43. Project MATCH Research Group (1998) ‘Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity: Project MATCH Three-Year Drinking Outcomes’, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 6: 1300–11.
    44. UKATT Research Team (2005) ‘Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Findings of the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial’, British Medical Journal, 331: 541–4.
    45. G. Tober et al. (2005) ‘Setting Standards for Training and Competence: The UK Alcohol Treatment Trial’, Alcohol & Alcoholism, 40, 5: 413–18.
    Part 3: Control Policies
    46. D. M. Fahey (1971) ‘Temperance and the Liberal Party: Lord Peel’s Report, 1899’, Journal of British Studies, 10: 132–59.
    47. K. Makela and M. Viikari (1977) ‘Notes on Alcohol and the State’, Acta Sociologica, 20, 2: 155–79.
    48. D. J. Pittman (1995) ‘Harm Reduction, Not Alcohol Consumption Reduction’, Addiction, 90: 1550–1.
    49. L. T. Midanik (2004) ‘Biomedicalization and Alcohol Studies: Implications for Policy’, Journal of Public Health Policy, 25, 2: 211–28.
    50. J. S. Blocker (2006) ‘Did Prohibition Really Work? Alcohol Prohibition as a Public Health Innovation’, American Journal of Public Health, 96, 2: 233–43.
    51. N. Heather (2006) ‘Controlled Drinking, Harm Reduction and Their Roles in the Response to Alcohol-Related Harm’, Addiction Research and Theory, 14: 7–18.
    Illicit Drugs
    Part 1: Patterns of Use and Problems
    52. H. S. Becker (1953–4) ‘Becoming a Marihuana User’, American Journal of Sociology, LIX: 235–42.
    53. E. Goode (1969) ‘Multiple Drug Use Among Marijuana Smokers’, Social Problems, 17, Summer, 54–62.
    54. L. N. Robins et al. (1974) ‘How Permanent was Vietnam Drug Addiction?’, American Journal of Public Health, 64, (Suppl): 38–43.
    55. J. D. Orcutt (1975) ‘Social Determinants of Alcohol and Marijuana Effects: A Systematic Theory’, The International Journal of the Addictions, 10: 1021–33.
    56. D. Waldorf (1983) ‘Natural Recovery from Opiate Addiction: Some Social-Psychological Processes of Untreated Recovery’, Journal of Drug Issues, 13: 237–80.
    57. E. M. Adlaf and R. G. Smart (1983) ‘Risk Taking and Drug Use Behaviour: An Examination’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 11: 287–96.
    58. D. Des Jarlais et al. (1987) ‘Intravenous Drug Users and the Heterosexual Transmission of the Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome’, New York State Journal of Medicine, 87: 283–6.
    59. W. Darrow (1990) ‘Prostitution, Intravenous Drug Use, and HIV1 in the United States’, in M. A. Plant (ed.), Aids, Drugs and Prostitution (Routledge), pp. 18–40.
    60. K. Chen and D. Kandel (1995) ‘The Natural History of Drug Use From Adolescence to Mid-Thirties in a General Population Sample’, American Journal of Public Health, 85, 1: 41–7.
    61. D. B. Kandel (2003) ‘Does Marijuana Use Cause the Use of Other Drugs?’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 289: 482–3.
    62. B. Adinof (2004) ‘Neurobiologic Processes in Drug Reward and Addiction’, Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12: 305–20.
    Part 2: Treatment Approaches
    63. G. E. Vaillant (1996) ‘Addictions Over the Life Course: Therapeutic Implications’, in G. Edwards and C. Dare (eds.), Psychotherapy, Psychological Treatments and the Addictions (Cambridge University Press), pp. 3–18.
    64. K. Johnson et al. (1998) ‘Preventing and Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among High-Risk Youths by Increasing Family Resilience’, Social Work, 43, 4: 297–308.
    65. R. Velleman, L. Templeton, and A. Copello (2005) ‘The Role of the Family in Preventing and Intervening With Substance Use and Misuse: A Comprehensive Review of Family Interventions, With a Focus on Young People’, Drug and Alcohol Review, 24: 93–109.
    Part 3: Control Policies
    66. B. N. Kinder, N. E. Pape, and S. Walfish (1980) ‘Drug and Alcohol Education Programs: A Review of Outcome Studies’, International Journal of the Addictions, 15: 1035–56.
    67. R. Room (1981) ‘The Case for a Problem Prevention Approach to Alcohol Drug and Mental Problems’, Public Health Reports, 96: 26–33.
    68. G. Stimson (1987) ‘British Drug Policies in the 1980s’, Drug Use and Misuse: A Reader (Open University Press), pp. 118–25.
    69. A. Goldstein and H. Kalant (1990) ‘Drug Policy: Striking the Right Balance’, Science, 249: 1513–21.
    70. G. Stimson (1990) ‘AIDS and HIV: The Challenge for British Drug Services’, British Journal of Addiction, 85: 329–39.
    71. T. Kerr, W. Small, and E. Wood (2005) ‘The Public Health and Social Impacts of Drug Market Enforcement: A Review of the Evidence’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 16: 210–20.
    Other Addictions
    Part 1: Patterns of Use and Problems
    72. W. W. Gull (1873), ‘Anorexia Nervosa (Apepsia Hysterica, Anorexia Hysterica)’, in M. R. Kaufman and M. Herman (eds.), Evolution of Psychosomatic Concepts (International Universities Press, 1964), pp. 132–6.
    73. I. Marks (1990) ‘Non-Chemical (Behaviourial) Addictions’, British Journal of Addiction, 85: 1389–94.
    74. J. L. Greenberg, S. E. Lewis, and D. K. Dodd (1999) ‘Overlapping Addictions and Self-Esteem Among College Men and Women’, Addictive Behaviors, 24: 565–71.
    75. S. Fisher (1999) ‘Prevalence Study of Gambling and Problem Gambling in British Adolescents’, Addiction Research, 7, 6: 509–38.
    76. R. Ladouceur et al. (1999) ‘Pathological Gambling and Related Problems Among Adolescents’, Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8, 4: 55–68.
    77. F. C. Breslin et al. (1999) ‘The Effects of Alcohol, Gender, and Sensation Seeking on the Gambling Choices of Social Drinkers’, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13: 243–52.
    78. C. Corte and K. F. Stein (2001) ‘Eating Disorders and Substance Use: An Examination of Behavioral Associations’, Eating Behaviors, 1: 173–89.
    79. E. C. Dunn, M. E. Larimer, and C. Neighbors (2002) ‘Alcohol and Drug-Related Negative Consequences in College Students with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder’, International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32: 171–8.
    80. E. Penas-Lledo, L. Sancho, and G. Waller (2002) ‘Eating Attitudes and the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Exercise Among Male and Female Adolescents’, Eating Behaviors, 3: 101–11.
    81. K. M. Von Ranson, M. McGue, and W. G. Iacono (2003) ‘Disordered Eating and Substance Use in an Epidemiological Sample: II. Associations Within Families’, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 3: 193–202.
    82. D. Benton (2004) ‘The Biology and Psychology of Chocolate Craving’, in A. Nehig (ed.), Coffee, Tea, Chocolate and the Brain (CRC Press), pp. 205–18.
    83. D. Krahn et al. (1992) ‘The Relationship of Dieting Severity and Bulimic Behaviors to Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Young Women’, Journal of Substance Abuse, 4: 341–53.
    84. J. Vander Bilt et al. (2004) ‘Gambling Participation and Social Support Among Older Adults: A Longitudinal Community Study’, Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 4: 373–90.
    85. J. Orford (2003) Problem Gambling and Other Behavioural Addictions (Office of Science and Technology).
    86. J. E. Grant, M. G. Kushner, and S. W. Kim (2002) ‘Pathological Gambling’, Alcohol Research and Health, 26, 2: 143–50.
    87. J. M. D. Wiebe and B. J. Cox (2001) ‘Profile of Canadian Adults Seeking Treatment for Gambling Problems and Comparisons With Adults Entering an Alcohol Treatment Program’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46: 418–21.
    88. N. M. Petry (2001) ‘Substance Abuse, Pathological Gambling, and Impulsiveness’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63: 29–38.
    89. S. H. Stewart and M. G. Kushner (2003) ‘Recent Research on the Comorbidity of Alcoholism and Pathological Gambling’, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27, 2: 285–91.
    90. M. D. Griffiths and R. T. A. Wood (2000) ‘Risk Factors in Adolescence: The Case of Gambling, Video-Game Playing and the Internet’, Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 2/3: 199–225.
    91. K. S. Young (2004) ‘Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences’, American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 4: 402–15.
    92. C. N. Carmin (1998) ‘Addicted Women: When Your Patient Can’t Stop Drinking, Smoking, Shopping, Eating’, International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Medicine, 43, 4: 179–85.
    93. L. M. Koran et al. (2006) ‘Estimated Prevalence of Compulsive Buying Behavior in the United States’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 10: 1806–12.
    94. J. Dobbs Butts (1992) ‘The Relationship Between Sexual Addiction and Sexual Dysfunction’, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 3: 128–35.
    95. P. J. Carnes, R. E. Murray, and L. Charpentier (2005) ‘Bargains With Chaos: Sex Addicts and Addiction Interaction Disorder’, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 12: 79–120.
    96. J. E. James and K. P. Stirling (1983) ‘Caffeine: A Survey of Some of the Known and Suspected Deleterious Effects of Habitual Use’, British Journal of Addiction, 78: 251–83.
    Part 2: Control Policies
    97. M. D. Griffiths (1993) ‘Fruit Machine Gambling: The Importance of Structural Characteristics’, Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 2: 101–20.
    Part 3: Treatment Approaches
    98. A. Goodman (1992) ‘Sexual Addiction: Designation and Treatment’, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 18, 4: 303–14.
    99. A. Koski-Jannes and N. Turner (1999) ‘Factors Influencing Recovery From Different Addictions’, Addiction Research, 7, 6: 469–92.
    100. A. S. Hall and J. Parsons (2001). ‘Internet Addiction: College Student Case Study Using Best Practices in Cognitive Behavior Therapy’, Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23, 4: 312–27.


    The collection editors are both experienced researchers in the field of addictions and problem behaviours. Their work has related to the use of alcohol, tobacco, prescribed and illicit drugs as well as topics such as risk-taking, HIV/AIDS and problems associated with compulsive gambling, sex, exercise, shopping, Internet use and dieting. They have been major contributors to the debate about the upsurge in binge drinking, especially amongst teenage girls and young women. They have also been outspoken contributors to the ongoing debate about policies to reduce the level of alcohol problems in the United Kingdom. They have served as advisers to the World Health Organization and many other national and international agencies.

    Martin A. Plant is Professor of Addiction Studies in the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is also Director of the Alcohol & Health Research Trust.

    Moira L. Plant is Professor of Alcohol Studies in the University of the West of England, Bristol. She is also Director of the Alcohol & Health Research Trust.