Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing Processes : Principles and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing Processes
Principles and Applications

ISBN 9781032054513
Published November 16, 2022 by CRC Press
316 Pages 65 Color & 31 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This reference text discusses fundamentals, classification, principles, applications of additive and subtractive manufacturing processes in a single volume.

The text discusses 3D printing techniques with the help of practical case studies, covers rapid tooling using microwave sintering and ultrasonic assisted sintering process, and covers different hybrid manufacturing techniques like cryo-MQL, and textured cutting inserts. It covers important topics including green manufacturing, ultrasonic assisted machining, electro thermal based non-conventional machining processes, metal based additive manufacturing, LASER based additive manufacturing, indirect rapid tooling, and polymer based additive manufacturing.

The book:

  • Discusses additive and subtractive manufacturing processes in detail
  • Covers hybrid manufacturing processes
  • Provides life cycle analysis of conventional machining
  • Discusses biomedical and industrial applications of additive manufacturing

The text will be useful for senior undergraduate, graduate students, and academic researchers in areas including industrial and manufacturing engineering, mechanical engineering, and production engineering.

Discussing the sustainability aspects of conventional machining in reducing carbon footprint of machining by adopting different hybrid and non-conventional machining processes, this text will be useful for senior undergraduate, graduate students, and academic researchers in areas including industrial and manufacturing engineering, mechanical engineering, and production engineering.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Evolution of Manufacturing: Growing on a Circular Track 
Uday Shanker Dixit
1.1 Introduction 
1.2 Transformation of manufacturing system: domestic-factory-domestic 
1.3 Customization to mass production to mass-customization and again to customization  
1.4 Importance of sustainability in manufacturing sector 
1.5 Role of data and analytics in manufacturing 
1.6 Influence of evolutions in material science 
1.7 Automation 
1.8 Future of manufacturing 
1.9 Challenges 
1.10 Conclusion

Chatper 2  Grinding and recent trends  
Kamal Kishore, Manoj Kumar Sinha, Dinesh Setti
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Sustainable Machining Techniques 
2.2.1 Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) 
2.2.2 Nanofluid MQL 
2.2.3 Cryogenic Cooling 
2.2.4 Hybrid Cooling Methods 
2.3 Hybrid Grinding Techniques 
2.3.1 Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (UAG) 
2.3.2 Laser-assisted Grinding (LAG) 
2.4 Micro-grinding 
2.5 High-Speed Grinding (HSG) 
2.5.1 Creep Feed Grinding 
2.5.2 High-Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG) 
2.5.3 Speed Stroke Grinding (SSG) 
2.6 Textured Grinding Wheel (TGW) 
2.7 3D-printed Grinding Wheels 
2.8 Artificial Intelligence (AI) in grinding 
2.8.1 Self-Optimising Programs Systems 
2.9 Precision Shaped Grits 
2.10 Summary 

Chapter 3 Recent advances in ultrasonic manufacturing and its industrial applications 

Ravinder P. Singh, Vishal Gupta , Girish C. Verma , Pulak M. Pandey, Uday S. Dixit

3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Basic concept 
3.2.1 Mechanics of cutting UAMc process 
3.2.2 Influence on the cutting mechanism 
3.3 Mechatronics involved in UAMc 
3.4 Ultrasonic assisted machining (UAMc) economic aspect 
3.5 Influence of ultrasonic effect on various machining processes 
3.5.1 UAT process 
3.5.2 Ultrasonic assisted milling (UAM) process 
3.5.3 Ultrasonic assisted drilling 
3.6 Industrial application of UAM and RUD process 
3.6.1 Case study on UAM process 
3.6.2 Case study of RUD in biomedical application 
3.7 Conclusion
Chapter 4 Environmental Sustainability Assessment of a Milling Process using LCA: A Case Study of India 

Nitesh Sihag, Vikrant Bhakar, Kuldip Singh Sangwan

4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Materials and Method 
4.2.1 Goal and Scope Definition 
4.2.2 Functional Unit and System Boundary 
4.2.3 Reference Factory and HVAC System 
4.2.4 Inventory Analysis 
4.3 Results and Discussion 
4.3.1 Endpoint Assessment 
4.3.2 Midpoint Assessment 
4.4 Practical Implications and Recommendations 
4.5 Sensitivity Analysis 
4.6 Summary 

Chapter 5  Mechanical based non-conventional machining processes
Rajesh Babbar, Aviral Misra, Girish Verma, Pulak M. Pandey

5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Abrasive jet machining 
5.2.1 Mechanism of material removal in AJM 
5.2.2 Process parameters of AJM 
5.2.3 Applications of AJM 
5.3 Abrasive water jet machining
5.3.1 Material removal mechanism in AWJM 
5.3.2 Process parameters of AWJM 
5.3.3 Cutting geometry in AWJM 
5.3.4 Applications of AWJM 
5.4 Magnetic abrasive finishing 
5.4.1 Material removal mechanism in MAF process 
5.4.2 Process parameters of MAF 
5.4.3 Advances and application of MAF 
5.4.4 Future scope of MAF 
5.5 Abrasive flow machining 
5.5.1 Mechanism of material removal in AFM 
5.5.2 Process Parameters of AFM 
5.5.3 Developments and application of AFM 
5.5.4 Future scope of AFM 
5.6 Conclusion 

Chapter 6 Thermal Energy Based Advanced Manufacturing Processes 

Hardik Beravala, Nishant K. Singh

6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Air/gas assisted EDM 
6.3 Magnetic field assisted EDM 
6.4 Magnetic field and Air/gas Assisted EDM 
6.5 Conclusions

Chapter 7 Polymer based additive manufacturing 

Narinder Singh, Buta Singh

7.1 Introduction 
7.2 Various techniques used in AM 
7.2.1 Fused deposition modeling 
7.2.2 Stereolithography (SLA) 
7.2.3 Laminated object manufacturing 
7.2.4 Selective laser sintering (SLS) 
7.2.5 Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) 
7.2.6 Polyjet 
7.3 HT thermoplastics in additive manufacturing: Structure 
7.4 HT engineering thermoplastics in PBF 
7.5 High performance polymers (HPPs) 
7.5.1 Amorphous HPPs 
7.5.2 Polysulfone 
7.5.3 Polyetherimide 
7.5.4 Poly (phenylene sulfide) and Semi-crystalline HPPs 
7.5.5 Polyether-ether-ketone 
7.5.6 Liquid crystalline polymers 
7.5.7 Nano-based materials/Innovative polymers 
7.5.8 Poly butylene succinate 
7.5.9 Poly hydroxy alkanoates 
7.5.10 Lignin 
7.6 Challenges in printing with HT engineering thermoplastics 
7.7 Conclusions 

Chapter 8 Recent Research progress and Future Prospects in the Additive Manufacturing of Biomedical Magnesium and Titanium Implants 

Haytham Elgazzar and Khalid Abdelghany

8.1 Introduction 
8.2 Additive Manufacturing and fabrications challenges of biomedical metal implants 
8.3 The fabrication of Ti6Al4V implants using SLM process 
8.4 Biomedical Ti6Al4V implants: Case studies 
8.5 The fabrication of Mg implants using SLM process 
8.6 Post-processing of SLM products 
8.7 Summary and future works 

Chapter 9 Indirect rapid tooling methods in additive manufacturing
Gurminder Singh, Pawan Sharma, Kedarnath Rane, Sunpreet Singh

9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Indirect rapid tooling 
9.3 Direct rapid tooling 
9.4 Soft Tooling 
9.5 Pattern quality by AM process 
9.6 Different rapid tooling processes 
9.6.1 Electroforming 
9.6.2 Casting 
9.6.3 Investment casting 
9.6.4 Sand casting 
9.7 Sintering 
9.7.1 Conventional Sintering 
9.7.2 Microwave Sintering 
9.7.3 Ultrasonic Vibration Sintering 
9.8 Applications of indirect RT methods 
9.8.1 Machining tools 
9.8.2 Biomedical 
9.8.3 Others 
9.9 Benefits of rapid tooling 
9.10 Future Scope and summary

Chapter 10 Laser Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys for Aerospace Applications
S K Nayak , A N Jinoop, S Shiva, C P Paul

10.1 Introduction 
10.2 LAM of Ni-superalloys 
10.3 LAM processes 
10.4 LAM Processed Ni-Superalloys for Aerospace Applications 
10.4.1 Inconel 718 (IN718)
10.4.2 LPBF of IN718 
10.4.3 LDED of IN718 
10.4.4 Inconel 625 (IN625) 
10.4.5 LPBF of IN625 
10.4.6 LDED of IN625 
10.5 Hastelloy-X(HX) 
10.5.1 LPBF of HX 
10.5.2 LPBF of HX 
10.6 Waspaloy 
10.6.1 LPBF of Waspaloy 
10.6.2 LPBF of Waspaloy 
10.7 CM247LC 235
10.7.1 LPBF of CM247LC 
10.7.2 LPBF of IN625 
10.8 Recent Trends in LAM of Ni-Superalloys 
10.8.1 Case studies for LAM built Ni super-alloys for aerospace applications 
10.9 Future Scope 
10.10 Conclusions 

Chapter 11  Impact of enabling factors on the adoption of additive manufacturing in the automotive industry 

Kshitij Sharma, Maitrik Shah, Shivendru Mathur, Neha Choudhary, Varun Sharma

11.1 Introduction 
11.2 Research motivation 
11.3 Literature review 
11.3.1 Enablers 
11.3.2 Research gap and objective 
11.4 Research method 
11.5 Methodology 
11.6 Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) 
11.7 Analytic network process (ANP) 
11.8 Application and results 
11.8.2 ANP application 
11.9 Discussion 
11.10 Managerial implication 
11.11 Conclusions 

Chapter 12 Thermal Analysis and Melt Flow Behavior of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) for Additive Manufacturing 

Vivek Dhimole, Narendra Kumar, Prashant K. Jain

12.1 Introduction 
12.2 Material and methods 
12.3 Results and Discussions 
12.3.1 Thermal analysis of Material Deposition Tool system 
12.3.2 Simulation of melt flow in Barrel 
12.3.3 Simulation of melt flow in Nozzle 
12.3.4 Free extrusion and swelling of melt 
12.3.5 Evolution of temperature distribution along the raster 
12.4 Conclusion

Chapter 13  Directed Energy Deposition for metals 
Nitish P. Gokhale and Prateek Kala

13.1 Introduction: 
13.2 Classification of DED processes: 
13.3 Material feeding: 
13.3.1 Wire Feeding: 
13.3.2 Omni-directional wire feeding 
13.3.3 Powder Feeding: 
13.4 Materials for DED processes: 
13.5 Influence of process parameters: 
13.6 Mechanical properties and microstructure: 
13.7 Advantages and disadvantages of DED processes: 



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Dr. Varun Sharma completed his B.Tech. degree from Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College in 2011securing first position and got Master’s degree from Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College in 2013 in Production Engineering specialization. He joined IIT Roorkee as a faculty member in 2018 and presently serving as assistant professor in Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. He has 8 years of experience in research and teaching. He has published 35 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 11 in national and international conferences. His research interest includes Conventional machining processes, Non-conventional machining processes, Machining and process optimization, Ultrasonic assisted machining, Additive manufacturing/ 3D Printing, Mechanical and biomedical applications.

Dr. Pulak M. Pandey completed his B.Tech. degree from H.B.T.I. Kanpur in 1993 securing first position and got Master’s degree from IIT Kanpur in 1995 in Manufacturing Science specialization. He served H.B.T.I. Kanpur as faculty member for approximately 8 years and also completed Ph.D. in the area of Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing from IIT Kanpur in 2003. He joined IIT Delhi as a faculty member in 2004 and is presently serving as Professor. In IIT Delhi, Dr Pandey diversified his research areas in the field of micro and nano finishing, micro-deposition and also continued working in the area of 3D Printing. He supervised 41 PhDs and more than 36 MTech theses in last 10 years and also filed 22 Indian patent applications. He has approximately 201 international journal papers and 48 international/national refereed conference papers to his credit. These papers have been cited for more than 7575 times with h-index as 43. He received Highly Commended Paper Award by Rapid Prototyping Journal for the paper "Fabrication of three dimensional open porous regular structure of PA 2200 for enhanced strnegth of scaffold using selective laser sintering" published in 2017. Many of his B.Tech. and M.Tech. supervised projects have been awarded by IIT Delhi. He is recipient of Outstanding Young Faculty Fellowship (IIT Delhi) sponsored by Kusuma Trust, Gibraltar and J.M. Mahajan outstanding teacher award of IIT Delhi. His students have won GYTI (Gandhian Young Technological Innovation Award) in 2013, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2020 .