Adhesion Measurement Methods: Theory and Practice, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Adhesion Measurement Methods

Theory and Practice, 1st Edition

By Robert Lacombe

CRC Press

456 pages | 170 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2005-11-21
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Description

Adhesion Measurement Methods: Theory and Practice provides practical information on the most important measurement techniques, their unique advantages and disadvantages, and the selection of the proper method for a given application. It includes useful information and formulae on adhesion related matters such as driving force formulae for various modes of delamination, methods for estimating stress buildup, and material property data in support of "back of the envelope" calculations.

The author presents optimal methods and tools used for measuring the adhesion of coatings and thin films as well as setting appropriate adhesion strength requirements. He provides a detailed overview of uses, implementation, and drawbacks for qualitative, semi-quantitative, and fully quantitative adhesion measurement techniques and self-loading systems. The book discusses thermal-mechanical behavior assessment, the application of the continuum theory of solids, and fracture mechanics, highlighting useful measures of adhesion strength such as stress intensity factor and strain energy release rate. It provides specific examples of how adhesion testing is carried out in practice, including the peel test, the scratch test, and the pull test, and describes the measurement of residual stress in a coating or other laminate structure. The book concludes with examples taken from the author's experience in the microelectronics industry and contains several appendices for looking up simple formulae and material property data for performing everyday calculations.

Adhesion Measurement Methods is an ideal addition for courses on materials science, mechanics of materials, or engineering design of laminate structures at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.

Reviews

"This is the first text to attempt to encompass the widely disparate topic of adhesion testing, and is written to serve as both a reference text and an educational tool. …the diagrams and text are useful in developing an understanding of adhesion properties and the forces at work under applied stress. …each chapter includes extensive references, and two of the appendices are a summary of available literature. …no adhesive lab should be without this text."

-Adhesives & Sealants Newsletter, Vol. 30, No. 3, March 13, 2006

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Overview

What Is Adhesion and Can It Be Measured?

Definition A: Criteria for a Truly Useful Definition of the Term Adhesion

Definition B: Adhesion

Comments on Nomenclature and Usage

References

OVERVIEW OF MOST COMMON ADHESION MEASUREMENT METHODS

Preamble

Peel Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Peel Test

Disadvantages of the Peel Test

Summary and Recommendations

2.3 Tape Peel Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Tape Peel Test

Disadvantages of the Tape Peel Test

Summary and Recommendations

Pull Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Pull Test

Disadvantages of the Pull Test

Summary and Recommendations

Indentation Debonding Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Indentation Debonding Test

Disadvantages of the Indentation Debonding Test

Summary and Recommendations

Scratch Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Scratch Test

Disadvantages of the Scratch Test

Summary and Recommendations

Blister Test

Introduction

Advantages of the Blister Test

Disadvantages of the Blister Test

Summary and Recommendations

Beam-Bending Tests

Introduction

Three-Point Bend Test

Four-Point Bend Test

Standard Double Cantilevered Beam Test

Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam Test

Double-Cleavage Drilled Compression Test

Brazil Nut Test

Wedge Test

Topple Beam Test

Advantages of Beam-Bending Tests

Disadvantages of Beam-Bending Tests

Summary and Recommendations

Self-Loading Tests

Circle Cut Test

Modified Edge Liftoff Test

Microstrip Test

Advantages of Self-Loading Tests

Disadvantages of Self-Loading Tests

Summary and Recommendations

More Exotic Adhesion Measurement Methods

Laser Spallation: Early Work

Later Refined Experiments

Laser-Induced Decohesion Spectroscopy Experiment

Advantages of Laser Spallation Tests

Disadvantages of Laser Spallation Test

Summary and Recommendations

Electromagnetic Test

Advantages of the Electromagnetic Test

Disadvantages of the Electromagnetic Test

Summary and Recommendations

Nondestructive Tests

Dynamic Modulus Test

Advantages of the Dynamic Modulus Test

Disdvantages of the Dynamic Modulus Test

Summary and Recommendations

Surface Acoustic Waves Test

Advantages of the Surface Acoustic Waves Test

Disadvantages of the Surface Acoustic Waves Test

Summary and Recommendations

Notes

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE ADHESION MEASUREMENT METHODS

Introduction to Continuum Theory

Concept of Stress in Solids

Special Stress States and Stress Conditions

Equation of Motion in Solids

Deformation and Strain

Constitutive Relations or Connecting the Stress to the Strain

Examples

Simple Deformations

Solving the Field Equations

Uniaxial Tension

Biaxial Tension

Triaxial Stress Case

Application to Simple Beams

General Methods for Solving Field Equations of Elasticity

Displacement Formulation

Stress Formulation

Mixed Formulation

Numerical Methods

Introduction

Detailed Stress Behavior of a Flexible Coating on a Rigid Disk

Strain Energy Principles

The Marvelous Mysterious J Integral

Summary

Notes

ELEMENTARY FRACTURE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS: APPLICATION TO PROBLEMS OF ADHESION

Introduction

Introductory Concepts

Fracture Mechanics as Applied to Problems of Adhesion

Elementary Computational Methods

Decohesion Number Approach of Suo and Hutchinson

Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations

Summary

Notes

APPLIED ADHESION TESTING

The Peel Test

Sample Preparation

Test Equipment

Peel Testing in Action

Advanced Peel Testing

Thermodynamics of the Peel Test

Deformation Calorimetry

Fully Quantitative Peel Testing

Earliest Work, Elastic Analysis

Elastic-Plastic Analysis

Full Elastic-Plastic Analysis

The Scratch/Cut Test

The Cut Test

Simplified Analytical Model for Cut Test

The Pull Test

Summary

Notes

ADHESION ASPECTS OF COATING AND THIN FILM STRESSES

Introduction

General Measurement Methods for Thin Films and Coatings

Cantilevered Beam Method

Variations on Bending Beam Approach

Optical Measurement of Deflection

X-ray Measurements

Ultrasonics

Photoelasticity

Strain Relief Methods

Magnetics

Raman Spectroscopy

Miscellaneous Methods

Summary

References

CASE STUDIES FROM THE FIELD

A Study in Adhesion Sensitivity to Contamination

Case of the Improperly Cured Film

Case of the Stressed Pin

Stability Maps

Summary

Notes

Appendix A: Vectors and Vector Calculus

Appendix B: Notes on Elementary Strength of Materials (SOM) Theory

Appendix C: Material Property Data for Selected Substances

Appendix D: Driving Force Formulae for a Variety of Laminate Structures

Appendix E: Selected References and Commentary on Adhesion Measurement and Film Stress Literature

Appendix F: General Adhesion Measurement References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC032000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Quality Control