1st Edition

Adhesion Measurement Methods
Theory and Practice




ISBN 9780824753610
Published November 21, 2005 by CRC Press
456 Pages 170 B/W Illustrations

USD $250.00

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Book Description

Adhesion Measurement Methods: Theory and Practice provides practical information on the most important measurement techniques, their unique advantages and disadvantages, and the selection of the proper method for a given application. It includes useful information and formulae on adhesion related matters such as driving force formulae for various modes of delamination, methods for estimating stress buildup, and material property data in support of "back of the envelope" calculations.

The author presents optimal methods and tools used for measuring the adhesion of coatings and thin films as well as setting appropriate adhesion strength requirements. He provides a detailed overview of uses, implementation, and drawbacks for qualitative, semi-quantitative, and fully quantitative adhesion measurement techniques and self-loading systems. The book discusses thermal-mechanical behavior assessment, the application of the continuum theory of solids, and fracture mechanics, highlighting useful measures of adhesion strength such as stress intensity factor and strain energy release rate. It provides specific examples of how adhesion testing is carried out in practice, including the peel test, the scratch test, and the pull test, and describes the measurement of residual stress in a coating or other laminate structure. The book concludes with examples taken from the author's experience in the microelectronics industry and contains several appendices for looking up simple formulae and material property data for performing everyday calculations.

Adhesion Measurement Methods is an ideal addition for courses on materials science, mechanics of materials, or engineering design of laminate structures at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Overview
What Is Adhesion and Can It Be Measured?
Definition A: Criteria for a Truly Useful Definition of the Term Adhesion
Definition B: Adhesion
Comments on Nomenclature and Usage
References

OVERVIEW OF MOST COMMON ADHESION MEASUREMENT METHODS
Preamble
Peel Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Peel Test
Disadvantages of the Peel Test
Summary and Recommendations
2.3 Tape Peel Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Tape Peel Test
Disadvantages of the Tape Peel Test
Summary and Recommendations
Pull Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Pull Test
Disadvantages of the Pull Test
Summary and Recommendations
Indentation Debonding Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Indentation Debonding Test
Disadvantages of the Indentation Debonding Test
Summary and Recommendations
Scratch Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Scratch Test
Disadvantages of the Scratch Test
Summary and Recommendations
Blister Test
Introduction
Advantages of the Blister Test
Disadvantages of the Blister Test
Summary and Recommendations
Beam-Bending Tests
Introduction
Three-Point Bend Test
Four-Point Bend Test
Standard Double Cantilevered Beam Test
Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam Test
Double-Cleavage Drilled Compression Test
Brazil Nut Test
Wedge Test
Topple Beam Test
Advantages of Beam-Bending Tests
Disadvantages of Beam-Bending Tests
Summary and Recommendations
Self-Loading Tests
Circle Cut Test
Modified Edge Liftoff Test
Microstrip Test
Advantages of Self-Loading Tests
Disadvantages of Self-Loading Tests
Summary and Recommendations
More Exotic Adhesion Measurement Methods
Laser Spallation: Early Work
Later Refined Experiments
Laser-Induced Decohesion Spectroscopy Experiment
Advantages of Laser Spallation Tests
Disadvantages of Laser Spallation Test
Summary and Recommendations
Electromagnetic Test
Advantages of the Electromagnetic Test
Disadvantages of the Electromagnetic Test
Summary and Recommendations
Nondestructive Tests
Dynamic Modulus Test
Advantages of the Dynamic Modulus Test
Disdvantages of the Dynamic Modulus Test
Summary and Recommendations
Surface Acoustic Waves Test
Advantages of the Surface Acoustic Waves Test
Disadvantages of the Surface Acoustic Waves Test
Summary and Recommendations
Notes

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE ADHESION MEASUREMENT METHODS
Introduction to Continuum Theory
Concept of Stress in Solids
Special Stress States and Stress Conditions
Equation of Motion in Solids
Deformation and Strain
Constitutive Relations or Connecting the Stress to the Strain
Examples
Simple Deformations
Solving the Field Equations
Uniaxial Tension
Biaxial Tension
Triaxial Stress Case
Application to Simple Beams
General Methods for Solving Field Equations of Elasticity
Displacement Formulation
Stress Formulation
Mixed Formulation
Numerical Methods
Introduction
Detailed Stress Behavior of a Flexible Coating on a Rigid Disk
Strain Energy Principles
The Marvelous Mysterious J Integral
Summary
Notes

ELEMENTARY FRACTURE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS: APPLICATION TO PROBLEMS OF ADHESION
Introduction
Introductory Concepts
Fracture Mechanics as Applied to Problems of Adhesion
Elementary Computational Methods
Decohesion Number Approach of Suo and Hutchinson
Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations
Summary
Notes

APPLIED ADHESION TESTING
The Peel Test
Sample Preparation
Test Equipment
Peel Testing in Action
Advanced Peel Testing
Thermodynamics of the Peel Test
Deformation Calorimetry
Fully Quantitative Peel Testing
Earliest Work, Elastic Analysis
Elastic-Plastic Analysis
Full Elastic-Plastic Analysis
The Scratch/Cut Test
The Cut Test
Simplified Analytical Model for Cut Test
The Pull Test
Summary
Notes

ADHESION ASPECTS OF COATING AND THIN FILM STRESSES
Introduction
General Measurement Methods for Thin Films and Coatings
Cantilevered Beam Method
Variations on Bending Beam Approach
Optical Measurement of Deflection
X-ray Measurements
Ultrasonics
Photoelasticity
Strain Relief Methods
Magnetics
Raman Spectroscopy
Miscellaneous Methods
Summary
References

CASE STUDIES FROM THE FIELD
A Study in Adhesion Sensitivity to Contamination
Case of the Improperly Cured Film
Case of the Stressed Pin
Stability Maps
Summary
Notes

Appendix A: Vectors and Vector Calculus
Appendix B: Notes on Elementary Strength of Materials (SOM) Theory
Appendix C: Material Property Data for Selected Substances
Appendix D: Driving Force Formulae for a Variety of Laminate Structures
Appendix E: Selected References and Commentary on Adhesion Measurement and Film Stress Literature
Appendix F: General Adhesion Measurement References

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Reviews

"This is the first text to attempt to encompass the widely disparate topic of adhesion testing, and is written to serve as both a reference text and an educational tool. …the diagrams and text are useful in developing an understanding of adhesion properties and the forces at work under applied stress. …each chapter includes extensive references, and two of the appendices are a summary of available literature. …no adhesive lab should be without this text."
-Adhesives & Sealants Newsletter, Vol. 30, No. 3, March 13, 2006