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3rd Edition

Advanced Heat Transfer



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ISBN 9781032072470
November 24, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
520 Pages 213 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The book provides a single source of technical content for the prediction, solution, and analysis of advanced heat transfer problems, including conduction, convection, radiation and phase change, and chemically reactive modes of heat transfer.

With more than 20 new sections, case studies, examples, and problems, the new edition broadens the scope of thermal engineering applications, including, but not limited to, biomedical fields, micro- and nanotechnology, and machine learning. The book features a different chapter devoted to each multiphase system, rather than mixing in special multiphase topics.

The book offers a comprehensive source for single and multiphase systems of heat transfer for graduate students taking courses in Advanced Heat Transfer; Multiphase Heat Transfer; Advanced Thermodynamics.

A Solutions Manual will be provided to adopting instructors.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions 1.2 Conservation of Energy 1.3 Thermophysical Properties 1.3.1 Thermodynamic Properties 1.3.2 Transport Properties 1.4 Heat Conduction 1.5 Convection 1.6 Thermal Radiation 1.7 Phase Change Heat Transfer 1.8 Mass Transfer 1.9 References 1.10 Problems 2 Heat Conduction 2.1 Introduction 2.2 One–Dimensional Heat Conduction 2.2.1 Heat Conduction Equation 2.2.2 Steady Conduction in a Plane Layer 2.3 Thermal Resistance and Shape Factor 2.4 Fins and Extended Surfaces 2.5 Multidimensional Conduction 2.5.1 Cartesian Coordinates 2.5.2 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates 2.5.3 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 2.6 Method of Separation of Variables 2.7 Non–Homogeneous Systems 2.8 Conformal Mapping 2.9 Transient Heat Conduction 2.9.1 Lumped Capacitance Method 2.9.2 Semi–Infinite Solid 2.9.3 Finite Regions 2.10 Time–Dependent Boundary Conditions 2.11 Conduction in Porous Media 2.12 Heat Transfer in Living Tissue 2.13 Microscale Conduction 2.14 References 2.15 Problems 3 Convection 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Governing Equations 3.2.1 Conservation of Mass (Continuity Equation)
3.2.2 Conservation of Momentum (Navier–Stokes Equations) 3.2.3 Total Energy (First Law of Thermodynamics) 3.2.4 Mechanical Energy Equation 3.2.5 Internal Energy Equation 3.3 Non–Dimensional Form of Equations 3.3.1 Dimensionless Variables 3.3.2 Buckingham–Pi Theorem 3.4 Convection Boundary Layer 3.4.1 Boundary Layer Equations 3.4.2 Heat and Momentum Analogies 3.5 Evaporative Cooling 3.6 Flat Plate Boundary Layer 3.6.1 Scaling Analysis 3.6.2 Integral Solution 3.6.3 Similarity Solution 3.7 Flow Past a Wedge 3.8 Cylinder in Cross Flow 3.9 Other External Flow Configurations 3.9.1 Sphere 3.9.2 Tube Bundles 3.10 Internal Flow 3.10.1 Poiseuille Flow in Tubes 3.10.2 Non–Circular Ducts 3.11 Free Convection 3.11.1 Vertical Flat Plate 3.11.2 Body Gravity Function Method 3.11.3 Spherical Geometries 3.12 Introduction to Turbulence 3.12.1 Turbulence Spectrum 3.12.2 Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations 3.12.3 Eddy Viscosity 3.12.4 Mixing Length 3.12.5 Near–Wall Flow 3.12.6 One and Two Equation Closure Models 3.13 Entropy and the Second Law 3.13.1 Formulation of Entropy Production 3.13.2 Apparent Entropy Production Difference 3.13.3 Dimensionless Entropy Production Number 3.14 References 3.15 Problems 4 Thermal Radiation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Fundamentals of Radiation 4.2.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum 4.2.2 Radiation Intensity 4.2.3 Blackbody Radiation 4.3 Radiative Surface Properties 4.4 Radiation Exchange between Surfaces 4.5 Thermal Radiation in Enclosures 4.5.1 Radiation Exchange at a Surface 4.5.2 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces4.5.3 Two–Surface Enclosures 4.6 Radiation in Participating Media 4.6.1 Attenuation by Absorption and Scattering 4.6.2 Scattering from Other Directions 4.6.3 Enhancement of Intensity by Emission 4.7 Equations of Energy Transfer for Participating Media 4.7.1 General Equation of Transfer 4.7.2 Radiative Flux Vector 4.7.3 Conservation of Energy 4.8 Approximate Solutions of the Equation of Transfer 4.8.1 Transparent Gas Approximation 4.8.2 Emission Approximation 4.8.3 Rosseland Approximation 4.9 Coupled Radiation and Convection 4.10 Solar Radiation 4.10.1 Components of Solar Radiation 4.10.2 Solar Angles 4.10.3 Incident Solar Radiation 4.11 Solar Collectors 4.11.1 Collector Efficiency and Heat Losses 4.11.2 Temperature Distribution 4.11.3 Heat Removal Factor 4.12 References 4.13 Problems 5 Gas–Liquid Two–Phase Flows 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pool Boiling 5.2.1 Physical Processes 5.2.2 Nucleate Pool Boiling 5.2.3 Film Pool Boiling 5.3 Forced Convection Boiling in External Flow 5.3.1 Over a Flat Plate 5.3.2 Outside a Horizontal Tube 5.3.3 Other Surface Configurations 5.4 Two–Phase Flow in Vertical Tubes 5.4.1 Vertical Flow Regimes 5.4.2 Formation of Bubbles 5.4.3 Models of Annular Flow and Heat Transfer 5.5 Internal Horizontal Two–Phase Flows 5.5.1 Flow Regimes in Horizontal Tubes 5.5.2 Dispersed Bubble Flow 5.5.3 One–Dimensional Model of Stratified Flow 5.5.4 Plug and Annular Flow Correlations 5.5.5 Multi–Regime Nusselt Number Correlations 5.6 Turbulence Modeling of Two–Phase Flows 5.7 Laminar Film Condensation 5.7.1 Axisymmetric Bodies 5.7.2 Other Configurations 5.8 Turbulent Film Condensation 5.8.1 Over a Vertical Plate 5.8.2 Outside a Sphere 5.9 Forced Convection Condensation 5.9.1 Internal Flow in Tubes 5.9.2 Outside a Horizontal Tube 5.9.3 Finned Tubes 5.10 Thermosyphons and Heat Pipes 5.10.1 Transport Processes 5.10.2 Operational Limitations 5.11 References5.12 Problems 6 Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Dispersed Phase Equations 6.2.1 Particle Equation of Motion 6.2.2 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer 6.3 Carrier Phase Equations 6.3.1 Volume Averaging Method 6.3.2 Conservation of Mass 6.3.3 Momentum Equations 6.3.4 Conservation of Energy (Total Energy Equation) 6.3.5 Thermal Energy Equation 6.4 Heat Transfer from Droplets 6.4.1 Lumped Capacitance Solution 6.4.2 Internal Temperature Distribution within a Droplet 6.4.3 Solidification of Droplets 6.5 Impinging Droplets on a Freezing Surface 6.6 Droplet to Particle Transition 6.6.1 Physical Processes 6.6.2 Solvent Evaporation and Droplet Shrinkage 6.7 Forced Convection Melting of Particles 6.8 Radiative Heat Transfer from Particles 6.8.1 Absorption and Emission in a Gas Layer 6.8.2 Particulate Radiation 6.9 Internal Flows with Particles 6.9.1 Slurries 6.9.2 Vertical Flows in Pipelines 6.9.3 Horizontal Transport of Solid Particles 6.9.4 Packed Bed Flow 6.10 Nanofluids and Nanoparticles 6.10.1 Transport Phenomena 6.10.2 Governing Transport Equations 6.10.3 Thermal Conductivity 6.10.4 Heat Transfer and Nusselt Number 6.11 References 6.12 Problems 7 Solidification and Melting 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Thermodynamics of Phase Change 7.3 Governing Equations 7.3.1 General Scalar Transport Equation 7.3.2 Mass and Momentum Equations 7.3.3 Energy Equation 7.3.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 7.4 Freezing in a Semi–Infinite Domain 7.4.1 Stefan Problem 7.4.2 Integral Solution 7.5 Uniform Phase Interface Velocity 7.6 Solidification with Convective Boundary Cooling 7.6.1 Perturbation Solution 7.6.2 Quasi–Stationary Solution 7.6.3 Frozen Temperature Approximate Solution 7.6.4 Multicomponent Systems 7.7 Cylindrical Geometry 7.7.1 Solidification in a Semi–Infinite Domain 7.7.2 Heat Balance Integral Solution 7.7.3 Melting with a Line Heat Source 7.7.4 Superheating in the Liquid Phase 7.8 Spherical Geometry 7.9 References 7.10 Problems 8 Chemically Reacting Flows 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Mixture Properties 8.3 Reaction Rates 8.4 Governing Conservation Equations 8.4.1 General Mole Balance Equation 8.4.2 Energy Balance 8.5 Types of Chemical Reactors 8.5.1 Batch Reactor 8.5.2 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 8.5.3 Plug Flow Reactor 8.5.4 Packed Bed Reactor 8.6 Diffusive Transport Phenomena 8.6.1 Heterogeneous Reaction 8.6.2 Homogeneous Reaction 8.6.3 Reaction in a Porous Catalyst 8.7 Heat and Fluid Flow with Chemical Reactions 8.8 Fuels and Combustion 8.8.1 Combustion Process 8.8.2 Burning Fuel Droplet 8.8.3 Radiation Exchange 8.9 Multiphase Reacting Mixtures 8.9.1 Physical Processes 8.9.2 Shrinking Core Model 8.9.3 Progressive Conversion Model 8.10 Fluidized Beds 8.10.1 Hydrodynamics 8.10.2 Heat and Mass Transfer 8.10.3 Reaction Rates for Solid Conversion 8.10.4 Non–Catalytic Gas–Solid Reaction Model 8.11 References 8.12 Problems 9 Heat Exchangers 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Types of Heat Exchangers 9.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis 9.3.1 Log Mean Temperature Difference 9.3.2 Correction Factor for Complex Configurations 9.3.3 Pressure Drop 9.4 Effectiveness – NTU Method 9.5 Honeycomb Heat Exchangers 9.6 Moving Bed Heat Exchangers 9.7 Thermal Enhancement with Metal Foams 9.8 Microchannel Heat Exchangers 9.9 Thermal Response to Transient Temperature Changes 9.10 Three–Fluid Heat Exchangers 9.11 Two–Phase Heat Exchangers 9.11.1 Compact Heat Exchanger 9.11.2 Helically Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger 9.12 Optimization by Entropy Generation Minimization 9.12.1 Counterflow Heat Exchanger 9.12.2 Heat Exchangers with Flow Imbalance 9.12.3 Entropy Generation with Phase Change
9.12.4 Finned Tube Crossflow Heat Exchanger  9.13 References 9.14 Problems 10 Computational Heat Transfer 10.1 Finite Difference Method 10.1.1 Steady–State Solution 10.1.2 Transient Solutions 10.2 Finite Element Method 10.2.1 Weighted Residuals 10.2.2 Solution Procedure 10.3 Spatial and Temporal Interpolation 10.3.1 Triangular Elements 10.3.2 Quadrilateral Elements 10.3.3 Time–Dependent Problems 10.4 Applications to Heat and Fluid Flow 10.4.1 Two–Dimensional Formulation of Heat Conduction 10.4.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics 10.5 Finite Volume Method 10.5.1 Discretization of General Scalar Conservation Equation
10.5.2 Transient, Convection, Diffusion and Source Terms 10.5.3 SIMPLE and SIMPLEC Methods 10.5.4 Turbulent Flow Modeling 10.6 Control–Volume–Based Finite Element Method 10.6.1 General Scalar Conservation Equation 10.6.2 Transient, Convection, Diffusion and Source Terms 10.6.3 Assembly of Subcontrol Volume Equations 10.7 Radiation Heat Transfer 10.7.1 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model 10.7.2 Discrete Ordinates Model 10.7.3 Finite Volume Method 10.8 Two–Phase Flows 10.8.1 Liquid–Gas Phase Change 10.8.2 Solid–Liquid Phase Change 10.9 Machine Learning 10.9.1 Introduction 10.9.2 Artificial Neural Networks 10.9.3 Case Studies of Conduction and Forced Convection 10.9.4 Linear Regression 10.10 Other Methods 10.11 References 10.12 Problems 11 Appendices 11.1 Appendix A: Vector and Tensor Notations 11.2 Appendix B: Conversion of Units and Constants 11.3 Appendix C: Convection Equations in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 11.4 Appendix D: Properties of Solids 11.5 Appendix E: Properties of Gases 11.6 Appendix F: Properties of Liquids 11.7 Appendix G: Radiative Properties 11.8 Appendix H: Atomic Weights of Elements 11.9 Appendix I: Thermochemical Properties 12 Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Greg F. Naterer is the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science and a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Memorial University, Canada. He previously held a Canada Research Chair in Advanced Energy Systems. Dr. Naterer has served in prominent national and international leadership roles in education and research including as Chair of the National Council of Deans of Engineering and Applied Science of Canada (NCDEAS), and Thermophysics Technical Committee of AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics). Dr. Naterer has made significant contributions to the fields of heat transfer, energy systems, and fluid mechanics. He led an international team that developed and constructed a copper–chlorine cycle of thermochemical hydrogen production. Dr. Naterer is the Editor–in–Chief of the AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. Among his awards and honors for teaching and research, Dr. Naterer has received the EIC Julian C. Smith Medal, CNS Innovative Achievement Award, CSME Jules Stachiewicz Medal and Best Professor Teaching Award. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering (CSME), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) and Canadian Academy of Engineering (CAE). Dr. Naterer received his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Waterloo, Canada, in 1995.