Advanced Oxidation Technologies: Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Advanced Oxidation Technologies

Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments, 1st Edition

Edited by Marta I. Litter, Roberto J. Candal, J. Martin Meichtry

CRC Press

350 pages

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Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) or Processes (AOPs) are relatively new and innovative technologies to remove harmful and toxic pollutants. The most important processes among them are those using light, such as UVC/H2O2, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2. These technologies are also relatively low-cost and therefore useful for countries under development, where the economical resources are scarcer than in developed countries.

This book provides a state-of-the-art overview on environmental applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) as sustainable, low-cost and low-energy consuming treatments for water, air, and soil. It includes information on innovative research and development on TiO2 photocatalytic redox processes, Fenton, Photo-Fenton processes, zerovalent iron technology, and others, highlighting possible applications of AOTs in both developing and industrialized countries around the world in the framework of “A crosscutting and comprehensive look at environmental problems”.

The book is aimed at professionals and academics worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply, environmental protection, and will be a useful information source for decision and policy makers and other stakeholders working on solutions for environmental problems.

Table of Contents

1. Decontamination of water by solar irradiation

Sixto Malato, Manuel I. Maldonado, Pilar Fernández, Isabel Oller, Inmaculada Polo & Nikolaus Klamerth

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Solar advanced oxidation processes

1.2.1 TiO2 solar photocatalysis

1.2.2 Solar photo-fenton

1.3 Solar technical issues

1.3.1 Hardware for solar AOPs

1.3.2 Solar photocatalytic treatment plants

1.4 Treatment of industrial wastewaters

1.4.1 Toxicity and biodegradability assessment

1.4.2 Industrial wastewater treatment by combined AOPs/biotreatment

1.5 Treatment of secondary effluents

1.6 Conclusions

2. Reduction of pentavalent and trivalent arsenic by TiO2-photocatalysis: An innovative way of arsenic removal

Marta I. Litter, Ivana K. Levy, Natalia Quici, Martín Mizrahi, Gustavo Ruano, Guillermo Zampieri & Félix G. Requejo

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Experimental section

2.2.1 Materials and methods

2.2.2 Irradiation systems

2.3 Results

2.3.1 As(V) photocatalytic experiments

2.3.2 As(III) photocatalytic experiments

2.3.3 Analysis of solid residues

2.4 Discussion

2.4.1 Mechanisms at acid pH

2.4.2 Effect of pH

2.4.3 Comparison with previous results

2.5 Conclusions

3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of tungstophosphoric acid immobilized onY zeolite

Candelaria Leal Marchena, Silvina Gomez, Liliana B. Pierella & Luis R. Pizzio

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Experimental

3.2.1 Samples preparation

3.2.2 Sample characterization Textural properties Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy X-Ray diffraction Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy Potentiometric titration

3.2.3 Photodegradation reaction

3.3 Results and discussion

3.4 Conclusions

4. Kinetic aspects of the photodegradation of phenolic and lactonic biocides under natural and artificial conditions

Juan P. Escalada, Adriana Pajares, Mabel Bregliani, Alicia Biasutti, Susana Criado, Patricia Molina,Walter Massad & Norman A. García

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Photochemical degradation

4.2.1 Modeling natural photodegradation

4.2.2 Artificial photodegradation

4.2.3 Biocides selected for the study State of the art

4.3 Methods for photodegradation studies

4.3.1 Sensitized photoirradiation Quenching of 1Rf* and 3Rf* Quenching of O2(1

4.3.2 Direct photolysis of ABA, BXN and DCP

4.4 Conclusions

5. Fenton-like oxidation of phenol with a Cu-chitosan/Al2O3 catalyst in a recirculating batch reactor

Natalia Inchaurrondo, Josep Font & Patricia Haure

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Experimental

5.2.1 Catalyst preparation and characterization

5.2.2 Fenton like oxidation of phenol aqueous solutions Reaction set-up

5.2.3 Analytical methods

5.3 Results and discussion

5.3.1 Blank experiment

5.3.2 Activity and stability tests

5.3.3 Deactivation phenomena

5.3.4 Effect of intermediate products adsorption

5.3.5 Initial pH effect

5.3.6 Copper load effect

5.3.7 Liquid flow rate effect

5.4 Conclusions

6. Degradation of a mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D in water solution employing the UV/H2O2 process, including toxicity evaluation

Melisa Mariani, Roberto Romero, Alberto Cassano & Cristina Zalazar

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Materials and methods

6.2.1 Chemicals

6.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures

6.2.3 Analytical measurements

6.2.4 Toxicity assay

6.2.5 Operation

6.3 Results and discussion

6.3.1 Preliminary runs

6.3.2 Effect of initial pH values

6.3.3 Effects of initial hydrogen peroxide concentration

6.3.4 Effect of glyphosate and 2,4-D initial concentrations

6.3.5 Effect of variations in the incident UV spectral fluence rate at the irradiated reactor walls

6.3.6 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution

6.3.7 Formation of by-products and intermediates

6.3.8 Toxicity and chemical oxygen demand assays

6.4 Conclusions

7. Degradation of perchlorate dissolved in water by a combined application of ion exchange resin and zerovalent iron nanoparticles

Luis Cumbal, Daniel Delgado & Erika Murgueitio

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Experimental section

7.2.1 Chemicals

7.2.2 Procedures Preparation of nanoparticles Physical characterization of nanoparticles Conditioning of ion exchange resins and loading with perchlorate Kinetic tests Degradation of perchlorate

7.2.3 Chemical analysis

7.3 Results and discussion

7.3.1 Physical characterization of nanoparticles

7.3.2 Kinetic tests

7.3.3 Degradation of perchlorate

7.3.4 Effect of competing ions and organic matter on the degradation of perchlorate

7.4 Conclusions

8. Eco-friendly approach for Direct Blue 273 removal from an aqueous medium

Pamela Yanina González Clar, Gustavo Levin, María Victoria Miranda & Viviana Campo Dall’ Orto

8.1 Introduction

8.2 DB273 enzymatic decoloration

8.2.1 The enzyme

8.2.2 Color removal by oxidation

8.3 DB273 discoloration by adsorption

8.3.1 Synthesis and characterization of the polyampholyte

8.3.2 Kinetics of sorption

8.3.3 Isotherm data analysis

8.3.4 FTIR analysis

8.4 Conclusions

9. Decontamination of commercial chlorpyrifos in water using the UV/H2O2 process

Joana Femia, Melisa Mariani, Alberto Cassano, Cristina Zalazar & Inés Tiscornia

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Materials and methods

9.2.1 Chemicals

9.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures

9.2.3 Analytical methods

9.2.4 Bioassay test

9.3 Results and discussion

9.3.1 Preliminary runs

9.3.2 Effect of initial H2O2 concentration

9.3.3 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution

9.3.4 Evaluation of electrical energy per order

9.3.5 Toxicity evaluation

9.4 Conclusions

10. Abatement of nitrate in drinking water. A comparative study of photocatalytic and conventional catalytic technologies

F. Albana Marchesini, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Orlando Alfano, M. Alicia Ulla, Eduardo Miró & Alberto Cassano

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Materials and methods

10.2.1 Chemicals

10.2.2 Catalyst preparation

10.2.3 Catalyst characterization X-Ray diffraction analysis (DRX) Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)

10.2.4 Catalytic activity measurements Preliminary batch experiments Photocatalytic experiments

10.2.5 Analytical methods

10.3 Results and discussion

10.3.1 Physicochemical characterization of the Pt,In/TiO2 catalyst

10.3.2 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Conventional batch reactor

10.3.3 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Photocatalytic reactor

10.3.4 Spatial distribution of the radiation absorption

10.4 Conclusions

11. Photocatalytic inactivation of airborne microorganisms. Performance of different TiO2 coatings

Silvia Mercedes Zacarías, María Lucila Satuf, María Celia Vaccari & Orlando Alfano

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Kinetic study

11.2.1 Experimental set up and procedure

11.2.2 Inactivation of spores

11.2.3 Kinetic modeling Proposed kinetic model Radiation model Kinetic parameters estimation

11.3 Study of different TiO2 coatings

11.3.1 Efficiency parameters

11.3.2 Preparation of the photocatalytic coatings

11.3.3 Characterization of the photocatalytic plates

11.3.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic efficiencies

11.3.5 Discussion

11.4 Conclusions

12. Water decontamination by heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes over iron, iron minerals and iron-modified clays

Andrea De León, Marta Sergio, Juan Bussi, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Alberto Cassano & Orlando Alfano

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Catalysts for use in heterogeneous photo-fenton processes

12.2.1 Iron and iron minerals

12.2.2 Supported and immobilized iron species

12.2.3 Iron species supported on clays

12.3 Experimental

12.3.1 Catalysts Fe-PILCs Goethite Zerovalent iron

12.3.2 Catalyst characterization

12.3.3 Photocatalytic tests Fluidized bed batch reactor Stirred batch reactor

12.3.4 Analytical techniques

12.4 Catalytic activity

12.4.1 Iron-pillared clays used for dye degradation Contribution of different processes entailed in contaminant removal Influence of the clay aggregate size used for Fe-PILC preparation Influence of the initial pH of the reaction medium Selection of the temperature for calcination of the exchanged clay

12.4.2 Fe-PILC, goethite and zerovalent iron in 2-chlorophenol degradation

12.5 Conclusions

13. Modified montmorillonite in photo-Fenton and adsorption processes

Lucas M. Guz, Melisa Olivelli, Rosa M. Torres Sánchez, Gustavo Curutchet & Roberto J. Candal

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Experimental section

13.2.1 Materials

13.2.2 Iron (III) modified montmorillonite (Fe-MMT)

13.2.3 Copper (II) modified montmorillonite (Cu-MMT)

13.2.4 Biomodified montmorillonite (Apha-BMMT)

13.2.5 Adsorption of Cu(II) on MMT and Apha-BMMT

13.2.6 Materials characterization

13.2.7 Photo-Fenton experiments

13.3 Results

13.3.1 Adsorption of Cu(II) on P5-MMT and Apha-BMMT

13.3.2 Catalysts characterization

13.3.3 Photo-Fenton experiments

13.4 Discussion

13.5 Conclusions

14. Photocatalytic degradation of dichlorvos solution using TiO2-supported ZSM-11 zeolite

Silvina Gomez, Candelaria Leal Marchena, Luis Pizzio & Liliana Pierella

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Experimental

14.2.1 Preparation of zeolite supported TiO2 catalyst

14.2.2 Characterization of the photocatalysts

14.2.3 Photocatalytic experiments and analyses

14.3 Results and discussion

14.3.1 Characterization of TiO2/zeolite catalysts XRD analysis FTIR spectra BET surface area

14.3.2 Photocatalytic evaluation Preliminary studies Effect of TiO2 content on TiO2/HZSM-11 and TiO2/NH4-ZSM-11 samples Effect of the preparation of the catalyst and role of the support Effect of catalyst amount Effect of the calcination temperature Effect of initial pH value Effect of adding H2O2 to the photodegradation of DDVP

14.3.3 Photocatalyst recycling studies

14.4 Conclusions

15. Water disinfection with UVC and/or chemical inactivation. Mechanistic differences, implications and consequences

Marina Flores, Rodolfo Brandi, Alberto Cassano & Marisol Labas

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Disinfection

15.3 UV disinfection

15.3.1 The principle of UV disinfection Repair mechanisms

15.3.2 Case study: UV disinfection in clear water conditions Experimental procedure Experimental runs Kinetic model Experimental results

15.4 Hydrogen peroxide

15.4.1 The principle of disinfection using hydrogen peroxide

15.4.2 Case study: hydrogen peroxide disinfection in clear water conditions Experimental procedure Kinetic model Mathematical model final equations Experimental results

15.5 Peracetic acid

15.5.1 PAA mode of action

15.5.2 Case study: water disinfection with peracetic acid in clear water conditions Experimental procedure A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid decomposition Experimental results

15.6 Peracetic acid+UV light

15.6.1 Case study: disinfection of water with peracetic acid and its combination with UVC Experimental procedure A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid+UV Experimental results

15.7 Hydrogen peroxide+UV

15.7.1 Case study: disinfection with hydrogen peroxide and UV light in clear water conditions Experimental procedure Kinetic model Experimental results

15.8 Conclusions


16. Ag/AgCl composite material: synthesis, characterization and application in treating wastewater

Wei-Lin Dai, Quan-Jing Zhu, Jian-Feng Guo & Bo-Wen Ma

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Synthesis of the photocatalysts

16.2.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere Preparation of Ag spheres using ascorbic acid as the reducing agent Preparation of Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere using ferric chloride

16.2.2 Ag/[email protected]

16.2.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere Preparation of the hollow sphere PbWO4 Preparation of the hollow sphereWO3 Preparation of Ag-AgCl/WO3

16.2.4 [email protected]

16.2.5 Ag-AgI/[email protected] Synthesis of Fe3O4 particles Synthesis of [email protected] microspheres Synthesis of AgI/[email protected] Synthesis of Ag-AgI/[email protected]

16.3 Characterization of the photocatalysts

16.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic activity

16.5 Results and discussion

16.5.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere

16.5.2 Ag/[email protected]

16.5.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere

16.5.4 [email protected]

16.5.5 Ag-AgI/[email protected]

16.6 Conclusions

17. Highly photoactive Er3+-TiO2 system by means of up-conversion and electronic cooperative mechanism

Sergio Obregón & Gerardo Colón

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Experimental section

17.2.1 Synthesis of photocatalysts

17.2.2 Materials characterization

17.2.3 Photocatalytic experimental details

17.3 Results and discussion

17.4 Conclusions

18. Stabilized TiO2 nanoparticles on clay minerals for air and water treatment

Elias Stathatos, Dimitrios Papoulis & Dionisios Panagiotaras

18.1 Introduction

18.2 TiO2 nanoparticles and films

18.2.1 Sol-gel method for nanoparticles and films

18.2.2 Hydrothermal route for TiO2 nanoparticles and films

18.3 StabilizedTiO2 particles with sol-gel method on clay minerals. Palygorskite clay mineral as support for TiO2 particles

18.3.1 Materials and methods

18.3.2 Photocatalyst characterization

18.3.3 Photocatalytic activity of sol-gel TiO2 modified palygorskite clay mineral for polluted water with an azo dye

18.4 Stabilized TiO2 particles with hydrothermal route on clay minerals. Halloysite clay mineral as an example

18.4.1 Materials and methods

18.4.2 Photocatalyst characterization

18.4.3 Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified halloysite clay mineral for air purification

18.5 Conclusions

19. Photodegradation of beta-blockers in water

Virender K. Sharma, Hyunook Kim & Radek Zboril

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Phototransformation in water

19.3 Influence of water chemistry

19.3.1 pH

19.3.2 Nitrate ion

19.3.3 Types of natural organic matter

19.4 Mechanism

19.5 Mineralization and toxicity

19.6 Conclusions

20. Final conclusions

Marta I. Litter, Roberto J. Candal & J. Martín Meichtry

Subject index

Book series page


About the Editors

Professor Marta I. Litter was born in BuenosAires,Argentina. She holds a degree and a Doctorate in Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She performed a Postdoctoral stage at the University of Arizona, USA, in Polymer Chemistry (1983). She is the Head of Remediation Technologies Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Principal Researcher, National Research Council (CONICET,Argentina) and Full Professor of the University of General San Martín, Argentina. She has written more than 150 scientific publications. She has coordinated several projects on water treatment, mainly in Advanced Oxidation Technologies. She was also Coordinator of the CYTED IBEROARSEN Network (2006–2009).

She received the Mercosur Prize 2006 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Social Inclusion, for the Project: “Potabilization of water by low-cost technologies in isolated rural zones of Mercosur” and the Mercosur Prize 2011 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Sustainable Development, for the Project: “The problem of arsenic in the Mercosur.An integrated and multidisciplinary approach to contribute to its resolution.”

At present she is President of the Local Organizing Committee of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As2014) to be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 11 to 16 May 2014.

Professor Roberto J. Candal, born 1960 in Argentina, holds a degree in Chemistry and a doctorate in the field of Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires. He held a three year position as Post-doc at the Water Chemistry Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA. His interests in research are focused on the development of newmaterials with application in water or air remediation, photocatalysis, sol-gel chemistry and water chemistry. Dr. Candal is co-author of more than 50 scientific publications in peer reviewed international journals and books. He has directed or co-directed three PhD Thesis; at present, he is directing three PhDThesis in environmental chemistry. Since 2010 he is Associate Professor at the National University of San Martín, Argentina, and Independent Researcher at the National Research Council ofArgentina (INQUIMAE-CONICET). Dr. Candal is a founding member ofArgentina Society for Science and Environmental Technology (SACyTA).

Dr. J. Martín Meichtry was born in 1977 in Colón, Entre Ríos, Argentina. He is Doctor in Engineering from the University of Buenos Aires (2011). Presently he is Researcher at the Remediation Technologies Division, Chemistry Management, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Assistant Researcher of the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Assistant Professor at the Chemistry Department, Buenos Aires School of the National Technological University, Argentina. He is author of 10 scientific publications, mainly in international journals of high impact in physical chemistry and environmental sciences, 4 chapters of books and many technical reports. He has more than 50 presentations in national and international congresses and other scientific meetings. He has participated in three prized presentations: Environmental Chemistry session, VI Congress Latin America SETAC (2003), Innovar Prize from MINCYT Argentina (2009) and Environmental Technology and Engineering section, COPIME Environmental Science Congress (2011). He has participated in 16 projects on water treatment, especially on Advanced Oxidation Technologies and more especially on Heterogeneous Photocatalysis. He is reviewer of the Chemical Engineering Science, Water Research and Chemical Engineering Science (ELS).

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply