Advanced Oxidation Technologies : Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments book cover
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Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments





ISBN 9781138072886
Published April 20, 2017 by CRC Press
350 Pages

 
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Book Description

Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) or Processes (AOPs) are relatively new and innovative technologies to remove harmful and toxic pollutants. The most important processes among them are those using light, such as UVC/H2O2, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2. These technologies are also relatively low-cost and therefore useful for countries under development, where the economical resources are scarcer than in developed countries.

This book provides a state-of-the-art overview on environmental applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) as sustainable, low-cost and low-energy consuming treatments for water, air, and soil. It includes information on innovative research and development on TiO2 photocatalytic redox processes, Fenton, Photo-Fenton processes, zerovalent iron technology, and others, highlighting possible applications of AOTs in both developing and industrialized countries around the world in the framework of “A crosscutting and comprehensive look at environmental problems”.

The book is aimed at professionals and academics worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply, environmental protection, and will be a useful information source for decision and policy makers and other stakeholders working on solutions for environmental problems.

Table of Contents

1. Decontamination of water by solar irradiation
Sixto Malato, Manuel I. Maldonado, Pilar Fernández, Isabel Oller, Inmaculada Polo & Nikolaus Klamerth
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Solar advanced oxidation processes
1.2.1 TiO2 solar photocatalysis
1.2.2 Solar photo-fenton
1.3 Solar technical issues
1.3.1 Hardware for solar AOPs
1.3.2 Solar photocatalytic treatment plants
1.4 Treatment of industrial wastewaters
1.4.1 Toxicity and biodegradability assessment
1.4.2 Industrial wastewater treatment by combined AOPs/biotreatment
1.5 Treatment of secondary effluents
1.6 Conclusions

2. Reduction of pentavalent and trivalent arsenic by TiO2-photocatalysis: An innovative way of arsenic removal
Marta I. Litter, Ivana K. Levy, Natalia Quici, Martín Mizrahi, Gustavo Ruano, Guillermo Zampieri & Félix G. Requejo
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Experimental section
2.2.1 Materials and methods
2.2.2 Irradiation systems
2.3 Results
2.3.1 As(V) photocatalytic experiments
2.3.2 As(III) photocatalytic experiments
2.3.3 Analysis of solid residues
2.4 Discussion
2.4.1 Mechanisms at acid pH
2.4.2 Effect of pH
2.4.3 Comparison with previous results
2.5 Conclusions

3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of tungstophosphoric acid immobilized onY zeolite
Candelaria Leal Marchena, Silvina Gomez, Liliana B. Pierella & Luis R. Pizzio
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Experimental
3.2.1 Samples preparation
3.2.2 Sample characterization
3.2.2.1 Textural properties
3.2.2.2 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
3.2.2.3 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
3.2.2.4 X-Ray diffraction
3.2.2.5 Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry
3.2.2.6 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
3.2.2.7 Potentiometric titration
3.2.3 Photodegradation reaction
3.3 Results and discussion
3.4 Conclusions

4. Kinetic aspects of the photodegradation of phenolic and lactonic biocides under natural and artificial conditions
Juan P. Escalada, Adriana Pajares, Mabel Bregliani, Alicia Biasutti, Susana Criado, Patricia Molina,Walter Massad & Norman A. García
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Photochemical degradation
4.2.1 Modeling natural photodegradation
4.2.2 Artificial photodegradation
4.2.3 Biocides selected for the study
4.2.3.1 State of the art
4.3 Methods for photodegradation studies
4.3.1 Sensitized photoirradiation
4.3.1.1 Quenching of 1Rf* and 3Rf*
4.3.1.2 Quenching of O2(14.3.2 Direct photolysis of ABA, BXN and DCP
4.4 Conclusions

5. Fenton-like oxidation of phenol with a Cu-chitosan/Al2O3 catalyst in a recirculating batch reactor
Natalia Inchaurrondo, Josep Font & Patricia Haure
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Experimental
5.2.1 Catalyst preparation and characterization
5.2.2 Fenton like oxidation of phenol aqueous solutions
5.2.2.1 Reaction set-up
5.2.3 Analytical methods
5.3 Results and discussion
5.3.1 Blank experiment
5.3.2 Activity and stability tests
5.3.3 Deactivation phenomena
5.3.4 Effect of intermediate products adsorption
5.3.5 Initial pH effect
5.3.6 Copper load effect
5.3.7 Liquid flow rate effect
5.4 Conclusions

6. Degradation of a mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D in water solution employing the UV/H2O2 process, including toxicity evaluation
Melisa Mariani, Roberto Romero, Alberto Cassano & Cristina Zalazar
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials and methods
6.2.1 Chemicals
6.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures
6.2.3 Analytical measurements
6.2.4 Toxicity assay
6.2.5 Operation
6.3 Results and discussion
6.3.1 Preliminary runs
6.3.2 Effect of initial pH values
6.3.3 Effects of initial hydrogen peroxide concentration
6.3.4 Effect of glyphosate and 2,4-D initial concentrations
6.3.5 Effect of variations in the incident UV spectral fluence rate at the irradiated reactor walls
6.3.6 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution
6.3.7 Formation of by-products and intermediates
6.3.8 Toxicity and chemical oxygen demand assays
6.4 Conclusions

7. Degradation of perchlorate dissolved in water by a combined application of ion exchange resin and zerovalent iron nanoparticles
Luis Cumbal, Daniel Delgado & Erika Murgueitio
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Experimental section
7.2.1 Chemicals
7.2.2 Procedures
7.2.2.1 Preparation of nanoparticles
7.2.2.2 Physical characterization of nanoparticles
7.2.2.3 Conditioning of ion exchange resins and loading with perchlorate
7.2.2.4 Kinetic tests
7.2.2.5 Degradation of perchlorate
7.2.3 Chemical analysis
7.3 Results and discussion
7.3.1 Physical characterization of nanoparticles
7.3.2 Kinetic tests
7.3.3 Degradation of perchlorate
7.3.4 Effect of competing ions and organic matter on the degradation of perchlorate
7.4 Conclusions

8. Eco-friendly approach for Direct Blue 273 removal from an aqueous medium
Pamela Yanina González Clar, Gustavo Levin, María Victoria Miranda & Viviana Campo Dall’ Orto
8.1 Introduction
8.2 DB273 enzymatic decoloration
8.2.1 The enzyme
8.2.2 Color removal by oxidation
8.3 DB273 discoloration by adsorption
8.3.1 Synthesis and characterization of the polyampholyte
8.3.2 Kinetics of sorption
8.3.3 Isotherm data analysis
8.3.4 FTIR analysis
8.4 Conclusions

9. Decontamination of commercial chlorpyrifos in water using the UV/H2O2 process
Joana Femia, Melisa Mariani, Alberto Cassano, Cristina Zalazar & Inés Tiscornia
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Materials and methods
9.2.1 Chemicals
9.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures
9.2.3 Analytical methods
9.2.4 Bioassay test
9.3 Results and discussion
9.3.1 Preliminary runs
9.3.2 Effect of initial H2O2 concentration
9.3.3 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution
9.3.4 Evaluation of electrical energy per order
9.3.5 Toxicity evaluation
9.4 Conclusions

10. Abatement of nitrate in drinking water. A comparative study of photocatalytic and conventional catalytic technologies
F. Albana Marchesini, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Orlando Alfano, M. Alicia Ulla, Eduardo Miró & Alberto Cassano
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Materials and methods
10.2.1 Chemicals
10.2.2 Catalyst preparation
10.2.3 Catalyst characterization
10.2.3.1 X-Ray diffraction analysis (DRX)
10.2.3.2 Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)
10.2.4 Catalytic activity measurements
10.2.4.1 Preliminary batch experiments
10.2.4.2 Photocatalytic experiments
10.2.5 Analytical methods
10.3 Results and discussion
10.3.1 Physicochemical characterization of the Pt,In/TiO2 catalyst
10.3.2 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Conventional batch reactor
10.3.3 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Photocatalytic reactor
10.3.4 Spatial distribution of the radiation absorption
10.4 Conclusions

11. Photocatalytic inactivation of airborne microorganisms. Performance of different TiO2 coatings
Silvia Mercedes Zacarías, María Lucila Satuf, María Celia Vaccari & Orlando Alfano
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Kinetic study
11.2.1 Experimental set up and procedure
11.2.2 Inactivation of spores
11.2.3 Kinetic modeling
11.2.3.1 Proposed kinetic model
11.2.3.2 Radiation model
11.2.3.3 Kinetic parameters estimation
11.3 Study of different TiO2 coatings
11.3.1 Efficiency parameters
11.3.2 Preparation of the photocatalytic coatings
11.3.3 Characterization of the photocatalytic plates
11.3.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic efficiencies
11.3.5 Discussion
11.4 Conclusions

12. Water decontamination by heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes over iron, iron minerals and iron-modified clays
Andrea De León, Marta Sergio, Juan Bussi, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Alberto Cassano & Orlando Alfano
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Catalysts for use in heterogeneous photo-fenton processes
12.2.1 Iron and iron minerals
12.2.2 Supported and immobilized iron species
12.2.3 Iron species supported on clays
12.3 Experimental
12.3.1 Catalysts
12.3.1.1 Fe-PILCs
12.3.1.2 Goethite
12.3.1.3 Zerovalent iron
12.3.2 Catalyst characterization
12.3.3 Photocatalytic tests
12.3.3.1 Fluidized bed batch reactor
12.3.3.2 Stirred batch reactor
12.3.4 Analytical techniques
12.4 Catalytic activity
12.4.1 Iron-pillared clays used for dye degradation
12.4.1.1 Contribution of different processes entailed in contaminant removal
12.4.1.2 Influence of the clay aggregate size used for Fe-PILC preparation
12.4.1.3 Influence of the initial pH of the reaction medium
12.4.1.4 Selection of the temperature for calcination of the exchanged clay
12.4.2 Fe-PILC, goethite and zerovalent iron in 2-chlorophenol degradation
12.5 Conclusions

13. Modified montmorillonite in photo-Fenton and adsorption processes
Lucas M. Guz, Melisa Olivelli, Rosa M. Torres Sánchez, Gustavo Curutchet & Roberto J. Candal
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Experimental section
13.2.1 Materials
13.2.2 Iron (III) modified montmorillonite (Fe-MMT)
13.2.3 Copper (II) modified montmorillonite (Cu-MMT)
13.2.4 Biomodified montmorillonite (Apha-BMMT)
13.2.5 Adsorption of Cu(II) on MMT and Apha-BMMT
13.2.6 Materials characterization
13.2.7 Photo-Fenton experiments
13.3 Results
13.3.1 Adsorption of Cu(II) on P5-MMT and Apha-BMMT
13.3.2 Catalysts characterization
13.3.3 Photo-Fenton experiments
13.4 Discussion
13.5 Conclusions

14. Photocatalytic degradation of dichlorvos solution using TiO2-supported ZSM-11 zeolite
Silvina Gomez, Candelaria Leal Marchena, Luis Pizzio & Liliana Pierella
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Experimental
14.2.1 Preparation of zeolite supported TiO2 catalyst
14.2.2 Characterization of the photocatalysts
14.2.3 Photocatalytic experiments and analyses
14.3 Results and discussion
14.3.1 Characterization of TiO2/zeolite catalysts
14.3.1.1 XRD analysis
14.3.1.2 FTIR spectra
14.3.1.3 BET surface area
14.3.2 Photocatalytic evaluation
14.3.2.1 Preliminary studies
14.3.2.2 Effect of TiO2 content on TiO2/HZSM-11 and TiO2/NH4-ZSM-11 samples
14.3.2.3 Effect of the preparation of the catalyst and role of the support
14.3.2.4 Effect of catalyst amount
14.3.2.5 Effect of the calcination temperature
14.3.2.6 Effect of initial pH value
14.3.2.7 Effect of adding H2O2 to the photodegradation of DDVP
14.3.3 Photocatalyst recycling studies
14.4 Conclusions

15. Water disinfection with UVC and/or chemical inactivation. Mechanistic differences, implications and consequences
Marina Flores, Rodolfo Brandi, Alberto Cassano & Marisol Labas
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Disinfection
15.3 UV disinfection
15.3.1 The principle of UV disinfection
15.3.1.1 Repair mechanisms
15.3.2 Case study: UV disinfection in clear water conditions
15.3.2.1 Experimental procedure
15.3.2.2 Experimental runs
15.3.2.3 Kinetic model
15.3.2.4 Experimental results
15.4 Hydrogen peroxide
15.4.1 The principle of disinfection using hydrogen peroxide
15.4.2 Case study: hydrogen peroxide disinfection in clear water conditions
15.4.2.1 Experimental procedure
15.4.2.2 Kinetic model
15.4.2.3 Mathematical model final equations
15.4.2.4 Experimental results
15.5 Peracetic acid
15.5.1 PAA mode of action
15.5.2 Case study: water disinfection with peracetic acid in clear water conditions
15.5.2.1 Experimental procedure
15.5.2.2 A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid decomposition
15.5.2.3 Experimental results
15.6 Peracetic acid+UV light
15.6.1 Case study: disinfection of water with peracetic acid and its combination with UVC
15.6.1.1 Experimental procedure
15.6.1.2 A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid+UV
15.6.1.3 Experimental results
15.7 Hydrogen peroxide+UV
15.7.1 Case study: disinfection with hydrogen peroxide and UV light in clear water conditions
15.7.1.1 Experimental procedure
15.7.1.2 Kinetic model
15.7.1.3 Experimental results
15.8 Conclusions
Appendix

16. Ag/AgCl composite material: synthesis, characterization and application in treating wastewater
Wei-Lin Dai, Quan-Jing Zhu, Jian-Feng Guo & Bo-Wen Ma
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Synthesis of the photocatalysts
16.2.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere
16.2.1.1 Preparation of Ag spheres using ascorbic acid as the reducing agent
16.2.1.2 Preparation of Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere using ferric chloride
16.2.2 Ag/[email protected]
16.2.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere
16.2.3.1 Preparation of the hollow sphere PbWO4
16.2.3.2 Preparation of the hollow sphereWO3
16.2.3.3 Preparation of Ag-AgCl/WO3
16.2.4 [email protected]
16.2.5 Ag-AgI/[email protected]
16.2.5.1 Synthesis of Fe3O4 particles
16.2.5.2 Synthesis of [email protected] microspheres
16.2.5.3 Synthesis of AgI/[email protected]
16.2.5.4 Synthesis of Ag-AgI/[email protected]
16.3 Characterization of the photocatalysts
16.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic activity
16.5 Results and discussion
16.5.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere
16.5.2 Ag/[email protected]
16.5.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere
16.5.4 [email protected]
16.5.5 Ag-AgI/[email protected]
16.6 Conclusions

17. Highly photoactive Er3+-TiO2 system by means of up-conversion and electronic cooperative mechanism
Sergio Obregón & Gerardo Colón
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Experimental section
17.2.1 Synthesis of photocatalysts
17.2.2 Materials characterization
17.2.3 Photocatalytic experimental details
17.3 Results and discussion
17.4 Conclusions

18. Stabilized TiO2 nanoparticles on clay minerals for air and water treatment
Elias Stathatos, Dimitrios Papoulis & Dionisios Panagiotaras
18.1 Introduction
18.2 TiO2 nanoparticles and films
18.2.1 Sol-gel method for nanoparticles and films
18.2.2 Hydrothermal route for TiO2 nanoparticles and films
18.3 StabilizedTiO2 particles with sol-gel method on clay minerals. Palygorskite clay mineral as support for TiO2 particles
18.3.1 Materials and methods
18.3.2 Photocatalyst characterization
18.3.3 Photocatalytic activity of sol-gel TiO2 modified palygorskite clay mineral for polluted water with an azo dye
18.4 Stabilized TiO2 particles with hydrothermal route on clay minerals. Halloysite clay mineral as an example
18.4.1 Materials and methods
18.4.2 Photocatalyst characterization
18.4.3 Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified halloysite clay mineral for air purification
18.5 Conclusions

19. Photodegradation of beta-blockers in water
Virender K. Sharma, Hyunook Kim & Radek Zboril
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Phototransformation in water
19.3 Influence of water chemistry
19.3.1 pH
19.3.2 Nitrate ion
19.3.3 Types of natural organic matter
19.4 Mechanism
19.5 Mineralization and toxicity
19.6 Conclusions

20. Final conclusions
Marta I. Litter, Roberto J. Candal & J. Martín Meichtry
Subject index
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Biography

Professor Marta I. Litter was born in BuenosAires,Argentina. She holds a degree and a Doctorate in Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She performed a Postdoctoral stage at the University of Arizona, USA, in Polymer Chemistry (1983). She is the Head of Remediation Technologies Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Principal Researcher, National Research Council (CONICET,Argentina) and Full Professor of the University of General San Martín, Argentina. She has written more than 150 scientific publications. She has coordinated several projects on water treatment, mainly in Advanced Oxidation Technologies. She was also Coordinator of the CYTED IBEROARSEN Network (2006–2009).
She received the Mercosur Prize 2006 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Social Inclusion, for the Project: “Potabilization of water by low-cost technologies in isolated rural zones of Mercosur” and the Mercosur Prize 2011 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Sustainable Development, for the Project: “The problem of arsenic in the Mercosur.An integrated and multidisciplinary approach to contribute to its resolution.”
At present she is President of the Local Organizing Committee of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As2014) to be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 11 to 16 May 2014.

Professor Roberto J. Candal, born 1960 in Argentina, holds a degree in Chemistry and a doctorate in the field of Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires. He held a three year position as Post-doc at the Water Chemistry Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA. His interests in research are focused on the development of newmaterials with application in water or air remediation, photocatalysis, sol-gel chemistry and water chemistry. Dr. Candal is co-author of more than 50 scientific publications in peer reviewed international journals and books. He has directed or co-directed three PhD Thesis; at present, he is directing three PhDThesis in environmental chemistry. Since 2010 he is Associate Professor at the National University of San Martín, Argentina, and Independent Researcher at the National Research Council ofArgentina (INQUIMAE-CONICET). Dr. Candal is a founding member ofArgentina Society for Science and Environmental Technology (SACyTA).

Dr. J. Martín Meichtry was born in 1977 in Colón, Entre Ríos, Argentina. He is Doctor in Engineering from the University of Buenos Aires (2011). Presently he is Researcher at the Remediation Technologies Division, Chemistry Management, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Assistant Researcher of the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Assistant Professor at the Chemistry Department, Buenos Aires School of the National Technological University, Argentina. He is author of 10 scientific publications, mainly in international journals of high impact in physical chemistry and environmental sciences, 4 chapters of books and many technical reports. He has more than 50 presentations in national and international congresses and other scientific meetings. He has participated in three prized presentations: Environmental Chemistry session, VI Congress Latin America SETAC (2003), Innovar Prize from MINCYT Argentina (2009) and Environmental Technology and Engineering section, COPIME Environmental Science Congress (2011). He has participated in 16 projects on water treatment, especially on Advanced Oxidation Technologies and more especially on Heterogeneous Photocatalysis. He is reviewer of the Chemical Engineering Science, Water Research and Chemical Engineering Science (ELS).