Advanced Router Architectures: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Advanced Router Architectures

1st Edition

By Axel K. Kloth

CRC Press

240 pages | 73 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849335501
pub: 2005-11-01
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Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.

Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic management may be important in certain applications, what the traffic manager does, and how it connects to the rest of the router. The author also examines the implications of the introduction or omission of a traffic manager into an advanced router. The text offers a similar analysis for other router topics such as QOS and policy enforcement, security processing (including DoS/DDoS), and more.

This book covers which mandatory and which optional building blocks can be found in an advanced router, and how these building blocks operate in conjunction to ensure that the Internet performs as expected.

Table of Contents


Internet Topology Change


Current Status

Traffic and Traffic Growth

The Carrier Business Model


Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

The VoIP Business Model

Internal Corporate Accounting

Advanced Routers in Central Office Applications


Central Office (CO) Colocation

Function Split


Traditional System Partitioning and Function Split

Functions within the Port Card

Functions within the Processor Card

Functions within the Switch Card

Functions within the OAM&P Card

High Availability




Network View of Redundancy and Failsafe Operation


Design Life Time and Single Point of Failure Impact

Definition of Availability

1+1 Redundancy

1:1 Redundancy

2 out of 3 (or N out of N+1) Redundancy

Redundant Switch Fabric Cards

Redundant Line Cards

Redundant Links

Redundant Power Supplies

Software Robustness

OAM&P Control over Redundant Subsystems

Timed Switchover

Switchover on Demand

Reducing Human Error Probability

The Chassis


Single-board versus Modular Designs

Line Cards



Functional Requirements

Further Impact of Advanced Router Architectures

Differentiation of Functions

Line Card Implementation in Single-board Designs

Line Card Implementation in Midplane Designs

Line Card Implementation in Backplane Designs

Line Card Messaging and Communications

Interior and Exterior Border Gateway Protocols

Line Card Functions for PSTN Internetworking

Port Card Functions

Network Processor and Traffic Manager Software Implications Local Control Processors for Line or Processor Cards

Switch Fabric Cards


Functional Requirements for an Advanced Router's Core

History of Router-internal Interconnects


Crosspoint Switches and Crossbar Switches

Shared Memory Switches

Non-buffered, Non-queued Switch Fabrics

Buffered and Queued Switch Fabrics

Combined Virtually Output Queued Switch Fabrics

Metrics of Switch Fabrics

Net Bit Rate or Link Rate Utilization (Minimum, Maximum, Average)

Throughput (Total and on a per-Link Basis)

System Availability (Minimum)

System Uptime (Minimum)

Reliability (Error Rate)

Logical Connection Setup Time (Minimum, Maximum, Average)

Logical Connection Teardown Time (Minimum, Maximum, Average)

Delay and Latency

Round-Trip Delay (Minimum, Maximum, Average)

Cell Delay Variation (CDV) (Minimum, Maximum, Average)


Field Upgradability

Resource Utilization on the Network Processor

Cost Structure


Performance Extension

Alternative Solutions

The "Switchless Switch"

Multicast and Broadcast

Bandwidth Overprovisioning

Traffic Manager Functions versus Queue Manager Functions

Deterministic Behavior

Switch Fabric I/O

Software Function Set in Local Switch Fabric Control

Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning


Definition of OAMP

Functions of the OAM&P Entity

Operational Statuses

Status Transitions

Relationship with NMC


Fail-safe and Fault-tolerant OAM&P Entity Operation

OAM&P Entity Internal Communication

Examples of Failure Modes of Managed Entities

The Necessity for the Device-Global View

Sample OAM&P Card Schematic .

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
SCIENCE / Optics