1st Edition

Advances In Animal Alternatives For Safety And Efficacy Testing

Edited By Harry Salem, Sidney A. Katz Copyright 1997

    Presents up-to-date concepts and approaches to the theory and practice of alternatives to animal testing and promotes technology transfer. The text addresses some of the ramifications of the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 which instructs the NIH to fund replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives. It also describes the likely impact of the European Union's Cosmetic Directive, which bans marketing of animal tested cosmetics in Europe after 1997 if alternatives are available. Contributions are grouped into five categories including: dermal toxicity; immunotoxicity; neurotoxicity; and oral/dermal/ocular validation.

    Part I DERMAL TOXICITY CHAPTER 1 Pseudo-Epidermis: An In Vitro Surrogate for the Study of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Toxicity CHAPTER 2 Refinement of an Endpoint for Measuring Skin Decontaminant Efficacy Model for Skin Reconstruction CHAPTER 4 Critique of Cell Culture Methods in Skin Permeability Assessment CHAPTER 5 The Local Lymph Node Assay and Other Approaches to the Evaluation of Skin Sensitizing Potential CHAPTER 6 The Alternative to Animals for Assessing Topical Irritants Is Humans CHAPTER 7 Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Activity in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Sulfur Mustard CHAPTER 8 What Is Irritant Dermatitis? A Biological Approach CHAPTER 9 Skin2: An In Vitro Tissue Model for Assessment of Cutaneous Safety and Efficacy Needs CHAPTER 10 Biochemical and Flow Cytometric Studies of the Mechanism of Action of Sulfur Mustard Using Human Cells In Culture CHAPTER 11 A Multiphase Screen for the Evaluation of Topical Skin Protectants Against Chemical Warfare Agents Part II DEVELOPMENTAL/REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY CHAPTER 12 Induction of Low-Molecular-Weight Heat-Shock Proteins in Drosophila and Human Embryonic Lineage Cells After Teratogen Exposure CHAPTER 13 Using Invariants of Swimming Motion in Biotoxicity Testing via Computerized Microscopy CHAPTER 14 Computation of Developmental Toxicity Potential by QSTR Models in the TOPKAT Program CHAPTER 15 Activity Profiles of Developmental Toxicity CHAPTER 16 Screening of Populations of Women at Risk for Reproductive Failure Using Cultured Rodent Embryos CHAPTER 17 Continued Evaluation and Application of a Bioluminescent Bacterial Genotoxicity Test Part III IMMUNOTOXICITY CHAPTER 18 Cytokine Gene Expression and Allergic Contact Dermatitis CHAPTER 19 Strategies for Developing Alternative Methods to Assess Contact Allergens Part IV NEUROTOXICITY CHAPTER 20 Astrocytes as Target Site for Neurotoxicity CHAPTER 21 Altered Angiotensin-Induced Drinking as a Noninvasive Behavioral Biomarker of Neonatal Glutamic Acid Neurotoxicity in the Rat CHAPTER 22 Cell Cultures for Screening of Antiesterase Compounds CHAPTER 23 Mechanistic Neurotoxicity Studies Using PC 12 Cells MDCK: An Epithelial Cell Line Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Response to Cholinesterase Inhibitors Part V ORAL/DERMAL/OCULAR VALIDATION CHAPTER 25 The Blood-Perfused Pig Ear: A Potential In Vitro Alternative for Dermal Permeation and Toxicity Studies CHAPTER 26 Bovine Comeal Opacity and Permeability Test Validation as an Alternative to the Draize Eye Irritation Assay CHAPTER 27 Metabolism of Humans and Animals Compared by Organ Cultures CHAPTER 28 Sulfur Mustard-Increased Proteolysis in Cultured Human Cells CHAPTER 29 Evaluation of Two In Vitro Human Skin Equivalents (Epiderm™ and Skin2™ Model ZK1300) for Assessing the Skin Irritation Potential of Personal Care Products and Chemicals CHAPTER 30 Strategies of Applications of In Vitro Methods to the Development of Pharmaceuticals and Devices CHAPTER 31 A Modular Approach to Validation— A Work in Progress CHAPTER 32 Evaluation of the CORROSITEX Method to Determine the Corrosivity Potential of Surfactants, Surfactant-Based Formulations, Chemicals, and Mixtures CHAPTER 33 Comparison Study of In Vitro and In Vivo Results on Textile Fabric Extracts for Assessing Dermal Irritancy Potential to Industrial Workers CHAPTER 34 Validation Issues for Alternatives Testing CHAPTER 35 Intra- and Interlaboratory Reproducibility of EpiDerm, an In Vitro Model for Dermal Irritancy Testing CHAPTER 46 Attaining a Rational Refinement and Reduction in the Use of Live Animals: Studies on Cyanide Toxicity CHAPTER 47 Integration of Alternative Tests into a Toxicology Research Program


    Harry Salem U.S. Army Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Sidney A. Katz, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey.