1st Edition

Advances in Clinical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, COVID-19, and Big Data

Edited By Raj Bawa Copyright 2022
    930 Pages 149 Color & 27 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    930 Pages 149 Color & 27 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    The pace and sophistication of advances in medicine in the past two decades have necessitated a growing need for a comprehensive reference that highlights current issues in medicine. Each volume in the Current Issues in Medicine series is a stand‐alone text that provides a broad survey of various critical topics—all accomplished in a user-friendly yet interconnected format. The series not only highlights current advances but also explores related topics such as translational medicine, regulatory science, neglected diseases, global pandemics, patent law, immunotoxicology, theranostics, big data, artificial intelligence, novel imaging tools, combination drug products, and novel therapies. While bridging the gap between basic research and clinical medicine, this series provides a thorough understanding of medicine’s potential to address health problems from both the patient’s and the provider’s perspectives in a healthcare setting. The range of topics covered and the expertise of the contributing authors accurately reflect the rapidly evolving areas within medicine—from basic medical sciences to clinical specialties. Each volume is essential reading for physicians, medical students, nurses, fellows, residents, undergraduate and graduate students, educators, policymakers, and biomedical researchers. The multidisciplinary approach of the series makes it a valuable reference resource for the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and governments. However, unlike other series on medicine or medical textbooks, this series focuses on current trends, perspectives, and issues in medicine that are central to healthcare delivery in the 21st century. Volume 2 focuses on the current issues in basic medical sciences, subjects that are fundamental to the practice of medicine. Specifically, it discusses clinical immunology, medical microbiology, COVID-19, and big data. These subjects, traditionally taught in the first two years of medical school that precede clinical instruction, provide a core of basic knowledge critical to the success in clinical medicine during rotations, training, and medical practice.

    1. SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A Perspective

    Raj Bawa, MS, PhD, MD 22

    Section 1 Clinical Immunology

    2. Specific Reactivity of Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies to Citrullinated Peptides Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Nicole H. Trier, PhD, Bettina E. Holm, Paul R. Hansen, PhD, Ole Slot, MD, Henning Locht, MD, and Gunnar Houen, PhD

    3. Complement Activation, Immunogenicity, and Immune Suppression as Potential Side Effects of Liposomes

    Janos Szebeni, MD, PhD, DSc, and Yechezkel (Chezy) Barenholz, PhD

    4. Human Clinical Relevance of the Porcine Model of Pseudoallergic Infusion Reactions

    János Szebeni, MD, PhD, DSc, and Raj Bawa, MS, PhD, MD 22

    5. Myelin Antigens and Antimyelin Antibodies

    Fredrick J. Seil, MD

    6. Advances in the Understanding of the Inflammatory Milieu and Its Correlations with Neurological Disorders

    Mario Ganau, MD, PhD, MBA, Sibel E. Huet, MD, Nikolaos Syrmos, MD, PhD, Mohammad Iqbal, MBBS, and Marco Meloni, MD

    7. Role of Ligustrum in Allergic Disease

    Priyadharshini Vellore Suresh, PhD, Tania Robledo Retana, PhD, Blessy M. Mani, PhD, Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa, PhD, and Luis M. Teran, MD, PhD

    8. Protective or Detrimental? The Role of Host Immunity in Leishmaniasis

    Camila dos Santos Meira and Lashitew Gedamu, PhD

    9. Personalized Nanomedicines for Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

    Cheng Lin, Huihua Ding, MD, Congcong Li, PhD, MD, Nan Shen, PhD, MD, Aimin Zhao, PhD, MD, and Matthias Bartneck, PD, PhD

    10. Intracellular Antibody Immunity and Its Applications

    Jingwei Zeng, PhD, and Leo C. James, PhD

    11. Maternal Antibody Interference Contributes to Reduced Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy in Developing Countries

    Claire E. Otero, Stephanie N. Langel, PhD, Maria Blasi, PhD, and Sallie R. Permar, MD, PhD

    Section 2 Medical Microbiology

    12. Reflections on 40 Years of AIDS

    Kevin M. De Cock, MD, Harold W. Jaffe, MD, MA, and James W. Curran, MD, MPH

    13. Formation and Maturation of the Oral Microbiota

    Luca Fiorillo, DDS, Gabriele Cervino, DDS, PhD, and Marco Cicciù, DDS, MSc, PhD

    14. Could the Environment Affect the Mutation of H1N1 Influenza Virus?

    Dong Jiang, PhD, Qian Wang, PhD, Zhihua Bai, PhD, Heyuan Qi, PhD, Juncai Ma, PhD, Wenjun Liu, PhD, Fangyu Ding, PhD, and Jing Li, PhD

    15. Current Perspectives in Medical Microbiology

    Raj Bawa, MS, PhD, MD ‘ 22

    16. Bacterial Virulence Plays a Crucial Role in Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Sepsis

    Gordon Y. C. Cheung, PhD, Justin S. Bae, Ryan Liu, MSc, Rachelle L. Hunt, Yue Zheng, and Michael Otto, PhD

    17. Where Cancer and Bacteria Meet

    Alexandra Merlos, PhD, Ricardo Perez-Tomás, PhD, José López-López, PhD, and Miguel Viñas, PhD

    18. Fungal Diseases as Neglected Pathogens: A Wake-Up Call to Public Health Officials

    Marcio L. Rodrigues, PhD, and Joshua D. Nosanchuk, MD, PhD

    19. Catch the Wave: Metabolomic Analyses in Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Philipp Brandt, Enrico Garbe, and Slavena Vylkova, PhD

    20. The Unmet Medical Need for Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Patients: Monitoring the Disease Status

    Maan Zrein, PhD, and Eric Chatelain, PhD

    21. Present and Future of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections

    Beatriz Suay-García, PhD, and María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, PhD

    22. Human Plague: An Old Scourge That Needs New Answers

    Xavier Vallès, PhD, Nils Chr. Stenseth, PhD, Christian Demeure, PhD, Peter Horby, MD, PhD, Paul S. Mead, MD, Oswaldo Cabanillas, PhD, Mahery Ratsitorahina, PhD, Minoarisoa Rajerison, PhD, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, PhD, Beza Ramasindrazana, PhD, Javier Pizarro-Cerda, PhD, Holger C. Scholz, PhD, Romain Girod, PhD, B. Joseph Hinnebusch, PhD, Ines Vigan-Womas, PhD, Arnaud Fontanet, PhD, David M. Wagner, PhD, Sandra Telfer, PhD, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, MD, PhD, Pablo Tortosa, PhD, Guia Carrara, PhD, Jane Deuve, PhD, Steven R. Belmain, PhD, Eric D’Ortenzio, MD, and Laurence Baril, MD, PhD

    Section 3 Biologics, Human Tissues, and Blood Products

    23. Human Brain/Cloud Interface

    Nuno R. B. Martins, PhD, Amara Angelica, BGE, Krishnan Chakravarthy, PhD, MD, Yuriy Svidinenko, MS, Frank J. Boehm, Ioan Opris, PhD, Mikhail A. Lebedev, PhD, Melanie Swan, MS, Steven A. Garan, PhD, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, PhD, MD, Tad Hogg, PhD, and Robert A. Freitas Jr., JD

    24. Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery: What Is New, and What Is Next?

    Francesca Lake, PhD

    25. Now the Future, We See Our Dreams: Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery

    Ray Lawrence, PhD

    26. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Meet the COVID-19 Pandemic: Potential Applications and Promises

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, MD, PhD, Haijiang Dai, PhD, Giovanni Damiani, PhD, Masoud Behzadifar, PhD, Mariano Martini, PhD, and Jianhong Wu, PhD

    27. Paradigm Shift in Medicinal Chemistry towards Data-Driven Approaches

    Jürgen Bajorath, PhD

    28. The Importance of Proper Statistical Methods in Developing Robust Predictive Models Using Chemodescriptors and Biodescriptors in the Twenty First Century

    Subhash C. Basak, PhD

    29. Fit-for-Purpose?—Challenges and Opportunities for Applications of Blockchain Technology in the Future of Healthcare

    Tim K. Mackey, PhD, Tsung-Ting Kuo, PhD, Basker Gummadi, MS, Kevin A. Clauson, PhD, George Church, PhD, Dennis Grishin, PhD, Kamal Obbad, Robert Barkovich, PhD, and Maria Palombini, MBA

    30. mHealth Approach to Clinics in Rural Settings in Nutrition Counseling

    Melissa D. Olfert, PhD, Makenzie L. Barr, PhD, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, PhD, Dustin M. Long, PhD, Treah S. Haggerty, MD, Mathew Weimer, MD, Joseph Golden, MD, Mary Ann Maurer, DO, Jill D. Cochran, PhD, Tracy Hendershot, MD, Stacey L. Whanger, MD, Jay D. Mason, MD, and Sally L. Hodder, MD

    31. Ten Simple Rules for Engaging with Artificial Intelligence in Biomedicine

    Avni Malik, Paranjay Patel, MD, Lubaina Ehsan, MD, Shan Guleria, MD, Thomas Hartka, MD, Sodiq Adewole, and Sana Syed, MD

    32. Five Key Aspects of Metaproteomics as a Tool to Understand Functional Interactions in Host Associated Microbiomes

    Fernanda Salvato, PhD, Robert L. Hettich, PhD, and Manuel Kleiner, PhD

    Section 4 Development and Use of FDA-approved Drugs for COVID-19

    33. COVID-19: Hundred Questions and Answers for Healthcare Providers and the Public

    Raj Bawa, MS, PhD, MD 22

    34. SARS-CoV-2 Tropism, Entry, Replication, and Propagation: Considerations for Drug Discovery and Development

    Nicholas Murgolo, PhD, Alex G. Therien, PhD, Bonnie Howell, PhD, Daniel Klein, PhD, Kenneth Koeplinger, PhD, Linda A. Lieberman, PhD, Gregory C. Adam, PhD, Jessica Flynn, PhD, Philip McKenna, PhD, Gokul Swaminathan, PhD, Daria J. Hazuda, PhD, and David B. Olsen, PhD

    35. Presence of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 Plasma

    For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Lisa K. Poppe, Phoebe B. Peña, Sara R. Privatt, Sydney J. Bennett, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Michael Belshan, Jacob A. Siedlik, Morgan A. Raine, Juan B. Ochoa, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Bobby Nossaman, Lyndsey Buckner, W. Mark Roberts, Matthew J. Dean, Augusto C. Ochoa, John T. West, and Charles Wood

    36. Performance of SARS-CoV-2 Serology Tests: Are They Good Enough?

    Isabelle Piec, PhD, Emma English, Mary Annette Thomas, MPhil, Samir Dervisevic, MD, William D. Fraser, MD, and William Garry John

    37. Forecasting the Novel Coronavirus COVID-19

    Fotios Petropoulos, DEng, and Spyros Makridakis, PhD

    38. Pandemic Responses: Planning to Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and Prepare for Future Outbreaks

    The PLOS Medicine Editors

    39. Pandemic Preparedness and Responses: WHO to Turn to in a Crisis?

    The PLOS Medicine Editors

    40. Links between Integrin αvβ3 and COVID-19: Impact on Vascular and Thrombotic Risk

    Marwa S. Hamza, PhD, and Shaker A. Mousa, PhD, MBA

    41. The Ocular Surface and the Coronavirus Disease 2019: Does a Dual ‘Ocular Route’ Exist?

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli, MD, Matteo Nioi, MD, Ernesto d’Aloja, MD, and Maurizio Fossarelo, MD

    42. Exploring Links between Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19

    Mradul Mohan, MS, PhD, Jerin Jose Cherian, MD, MBA, and Amit Sharma, PhD

    43. Convalescent Serum Therapy for COVID-19: A 19th Century Remedy for a 21st Century Disease

    Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui, PhD, Taissa Vila, PhD, Ahmed S. Sultan, BDS, PhD, and Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk, PhD

    44. Preexisting and Inducible Endotoxemia as Crucial Contributors to the Severity of COVID-19 Outcomes

    Ilja L. Kruglikov, PhD, Dr Sci, and Philipp E. Scherer, PhD


    Raj Bawa, MS, PhD, MD, is president of Bawa Biotech LLC (founded in 2002), a biotech/pharma consultancy and patent law firm based in Ashburn, Virginia, USA. Trained as a microbiologist and biochemist, he is an inventor, author, entrepreneur, professor, and registered patent agent (since 2002) licensed to practice before the US Patent & Trademark Office. He is currently a scientific advisor to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries (Israel), a visiting research scholar at the Pharmaceutical Research Institute of Albany College of Pharmacy (Albany, NY), and vice president/chief IP officer at Guanine, Inc. (Rensselaer, NY). He has served as a principal investigator of various research grants, most recently as a principal investigator of a CDC grant to develop an assay for carbapenemase resistant bacteria. He was an adjunct professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY) from 1998 to 2018. After earning a BSc (Honors School) in microbiology, he earned a MS (cancer biology), a PhD biophysics/biochemistry) and an MD. In the 1990s, Dr. Bawa held various positions at the US Patent & Trademark Office, including primary examiner from 1996–2002. Presently, he is a life member of Sigma Xi, cochair of the nanotech and precision medicine committees of the American Bar Association and founding director of the American Society for Nanomedicine (established in 2008). He has authored over 100 publications, edited 8 texts, and serves on the editorial boards of numerous peer-reviewed journals, including serving as an associate editor of Nanomedicine (Elsevier).