Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Testing, Characterization, and Environmental Regulations
Refiners’ efforts to conform to increasingly stringent laws and a preference for fuels derived from renewable sources have mandated changes in fluid cracking catalyst technology. Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Testing, Characterization, and Environmental Regulations explores recent advances and innovations in this important component of petroleum refining technology and evaluates how the industry has been changed by environmental regulations worldwide.
Measurement, testing, and improvement
Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential to the understanding of catalyst performance and feedstock properties. The book contains a detailed review of the use of adsorption microcalorimetry to measure acidity, acid site density, and the strength of the strongest acid sites in heterogenous catalysts. It also discusses the use of 1H-NMR to characterize the properties of a FCCU feedstock. In addition, the book dedicates several chapters to pilot plant testing of catalysts and nontraditional feedstocks, maximizing and improving LCO (heating oil) production and quality, and improving FCCU operations.
Complying with the EPA
The EPA has identified the petroleum refining industry as a targeted enforcement area for the Clean Air Act (CAA) passed in 1970 and the CAA Amendments of 1990. The final chapters of the book examine the evolution of the EPA’s attempts to encourage the refining industry to enter into voluntary consent decrees to comply with the CAA and the 1990 amendments. The book describes consent decree negotiations as well as FCC emissions (SOx, NOx, CO, PM) reduction technologies through consent decree implementations.
Containing contributions from a panel of worldwide experts, the book demonstrates how the global shift toward environmentalism has engineered significant changes in the petroleum refining industry at a critical level.
Maximizing FCC Light Cycle Oil by Heavy Cycle Oil Recycle; Hongbo Ma, Ruizhong Hu, Larry Langan, David Hunt, and Wu-Cheng Cheng
A New Catalytic Process Approach for Low Aromatic LCO; William Gilbert, Edisson Morgado Jr., and Marco Antonio Santos Abreu
Catalyst Evaluation Using an ARCO Pilot Unit on North Sea Atmospheric Residue; Sven-Ingvar Andersson and Trond Myrstad
Pilot Unit Test of Residue Type Catalysts on North Sea Atmospheric Residue; Sven~Jngvar Andersson and Trond Myrstad
Novel FCC Catalysts and Processing Methods for Heavy Oil Conversion and Propylene Production; Long Jun, Da Zhijian, Song Haitao, Zhu Yuxia, and Tian Huiping
Improving the Profitability of the FCCU; Warren Letzsch, Chris Santner, and Steve Tragesser
Troubleshooting Complex FCCU Issues; Jack R. Wilcox
Catalytic Cracking for Integration of Refinery and Steam Crackers; Dilip Dharia, Andy Batachari, Prashant Naik, and Colin Bowen
Advanced Artificial Deactivation of FCC Catalysts; A. C. Psarras, E. F. Iliopoulou, and A. A. Lappas
Coke Characterization by Temperature-Programmed Oxidation of Spent FCC Catalysts that Process Heavy Feedstock; William Gaona, Diana Duarte, Carlos Medina. and Luis Almanza
The Effect of Cohesive Forces on Catalyst Entrainment in Fluidized Bed Regenerators; Ray Cocco, Roy Hays, S. B. Reddy Karri, and Ted M. Knowlton
Application of 1H-NMR for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Feed Characterization; Dariusz S. Orlicki, Uriel Navarro, Michelle Ni, and Larry Langan
Surface Acid–Base Characterization of Containing Group IlIA Catalysts by Using Adsorption Microcalorimetry; Georgeta Postole and Aline Auroux
EPA Consent Decree Implementation; Jeffrey A. Sexton
FCC Emission Reduction Technologies Through Consent Decree Implementation: Heat Balance Effects on Emissions; Jeffrey A. Sexton
FCC Emission Reduction Technologies Through Consent Decree Implementation: FCC SOx Emissions and Controls; Jeffrey A. Sexton
FCC Emission Reduction Technologies Through Consent Decree Implementation: FCC NOx Emissions and Controls; Jeffrey A. Sexton
FCC Emission Reduction Technologies Through Consent Decree Implementation: FCC PM Emissions and Controls; Jeffrey A. Sexton