1st Edition

Advances in Medical Imaging, Detection, and Diagnosis

    1426 Pages 399 Color & 149 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    Medical care is the most critical issue of our time and will be so for the foreseeable future. In this regard, the pace and sophistication of advances in medicine in the past two decades have been truly breathtaking. This has necessitated a growing need for comprehensive reference resources that highlight current issues in specific sectors of medicine. Keeping this in mind, each volume in the Current Issues in Medicine series is a stand‐alone text that provides a broad survey of various important topics in a focused area of medicine—all accomplished in a user-friendly yet interconnected format. This volume addresses advances in medical imaging, detection, and diagnostic technologies. Technological innovations in these sectors of medicine continue to provide for safer, more accurate, and faster diagnosis for patients. This translates into superior prognosis and better patient compliance, while reducing morbidity and mortality. Hence, it is imperative that practitioners stay current with these latest advances to provide the best care for nursing and clinical practices. While recognizing how expansive and multifaceted these areas of medicine are, Advances in Medical Imaging, Detection, and Diagnosis addresses crucial recent progress, integrating the knowledge and experience of experts from academia and the clinic. The multidisciplinary approach reflected makes this volume a valuable reference resource for medical practitioners, medical students, nurses, fellows, residents, undergraduate and graduate students, educators, venture capitalists, policymakers, and biomedical researchers. A wide audience will benefit from having this volume on their bookshelf: health care systems, the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and government.

    1. Medical Imaging, Detection, and Diagnosis: A Journey in Pictures

    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD

    2. Techniques and Technologies for Medical Imaging, Detection and Diagnosis: An Introduction

    National Institutes of Health

    3. Progress in Viral Imaging by Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    Stefania Castelletto, PhD, and Alberto Boretti, PhD

    4. Ultra-Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Public Workspace Environments

    Ozlem Yaren, PhD, Jacquelyn McCarter, Nikhil Phadke, PhD, Kevin M. Bradley, Benjamin Overton, Zunyi Yang, PhD, Shatakshi Ranade, MSc, Kunal Patil, Rishikesh Bangale, MSc, and Steven A. Benner, PhD

    5. Saliva as a Testing Specimen with or without Pooling for SARS-CoV-2

    Detection by Multiplex RT-PCR Test

    Qing Sun, PhD, Jonathan Li, PhD, Hui Ren, PhD, Larry Pastor, Yulia Loginova, PhD, Roberta Madej, PhD, Kristopher Taylor, Joseph K. Wong, MD, Zhao Zhang, PhD, Aiguo Zhang, PhD, Chuanyi M. Lu, MD, and Michael Y. Sha, PhD

    6. Theranostics: Simultaneous Treatment and Diagnosis Made Possible by Nanotechnology

    João Albuquerque, PhD, Ana Rute Neves, PhD, and Salette Reis, PhD

    7. Current Issues in Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

    National Institutes of Health

    8. Diagnostic Ability of Radiofrequency Ultrasound in Parkinson’s

    Disease Compared to Conventional Transcranial Sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Mindaugas Baranauskas, PhD, Rytis Jurkonis, PhD, Arūnas Lukoševičius, PhD, Vaidas Matijošaitis, Rymantė Gleiznienė, PhD, and Daiva Rastenytė, PhD

    9. An Overview of Immunoassays

    Caroline Murphy, PhD, Sarah Gilgunn, PhD, and Richard O’Kennedy, PhD

    10. My Personal and Professional Journey: Reflections, Memories and


    S. R. Bawa, MSc, PhD

    11. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and Precision Medicine

    Joel L. Ramirez, MD, and Johannes R. Kratz, MD

    12. Protein Biomarker Signatures in Precision Diagnostics of Cancer

    Henrik Winther, PhD, and Carl Borrebaeck, PhD

    13. Next-Generation Sequencing for Companion Diagnostics and

    Precision Medicine

    Il-Jin Kim, PhD, Pedro Mendez, PhD, and David Jablons, MD

    14. Use of Public Human Genetic Variant Databases to Support Clinical Validity for Genetic and Genomic-Based In Vitro Diagnostics

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    15. Innovating the Concept and Practice of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Proteomes at the Proteoform Level

    Xianquan Zhan, MD, PhD, Biao Li, Xiaohan Zhan, Hartmut Schlüter, PhD, Peter R. Jungblut, MD, and Jens R. Coorssen, PhD

    16. Current Update of Laboratory Molecular Diagnostics Advancement in Management of Colorectal Cancer

    Siew-Wai Pang, Noel Jacques Awi, Subasri Armon, MD, Wendy Wan-Dee Lim, MD, John Seng-Hooi Low, MD, Kaik-Boo Peh, MD, Suat-Cheng Peh, MD, PhD, and

    Sin-Yeang Teow, PhD

    17. Fully Electronic Urine Dipstick Probe for Combinatorial Detection of Inflammatory Biomarkers

    Vikramshankar Kamakoti, PhD, David Kinnamon, MS, Kang Hyeok Choi, Badrinath Jagannath, MS, Mohanraj Ramasamy, MS, and Shalini Prasad, PhD

    18. Nanosensor Diagnostics

    Sourav Bhattacharjee, PhD

    19. Measuring Microbiome Effectiveness: A Role for Ingestible Sensors

    David Smith and Sohan Jheeta, PhD

    20. In-Ear Blood Oxygen Saturation: A Tool for Wearable, Unobtrusive Monitoring of Core Blood Oxygen Saturation

    Harry J. Davies, MSc, Ian Williams, PhD, Nicholas S. Peters, PhD, and Danilo P. Mandic, PhD

    21. Nanomaterials in Imaging

    Sourav Bhattacharjee, PhD

    22. In vivo Imaging as a Tool to Noninvasively Study Nanosystems

    George Loudos, PhD, and Maria Tina Rouchota, PhD

    23. Assessment and Quantification of the Core Muscles in Individuals with and without Achilles Tendon Pathology by Ultrasound Imaging

    Carlos Romero-Morales, MSc, PT, PhD, César Calvo-Lobo, MSc, PT, PhD, Marta San-Antolín, PhD, PHYSC, Pedro Martín-Llantino, MSc, PT, PhD, David Rodríguez-Sanz, MSc, DP, PT, PhD, María Bravo-Aguilar, MSc, PT, PhD, and Daniel López-López, MSc, DP, MPH, PhD

    24. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification: An Advanced Molecular Point-of-Care Technique for the Detection of Leishmania Infection

    Chukwunonso O. Nzelu, PhD, Hirotomo Kato, DVM, PhD, and Nathan C. Peters, PhD

    25. Are Nanobiosensors an Improved Solution for Diagnosis of Leishmania?

    Sona Jain, PhD, Wanessa Santana, Silvio S. Dolabella, PhD, André L. S. Santos, PhD, Eliana B. Souto, PhD, and Patrícia Severino, PhD

    26. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Testing in 45 Minutes Using Oligonucleotide Detection Tags

    Neil Gordon, BEng, MBA, Raj Bawa, PhD, MD, Garry Palmateer, MSc, Mehdi Rajabi, PhD, Jesse B. Gordon, PhD, Noor M. Kotb, BS, Rakshika Balasubramaniyam, and Benjamin R. Gordon, BSc

    27. Ultrasonography of the Kidney: A Pictorial Review

    Kristoffer Linkdskov Hansen, MD, PhD, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, MD, PhD, and Caroline Ewertsen, MD, PhD

    28. The Accuracy of Lung Auscultation in the Practice of Physicians and Medical Students

    Honorata Hafke-Dys, PhD, Anna Bręborowicz, PhD, Paweł Kleka, PhD, Jędrzej Kociński, PhD, and Adam Biniakowski, PhD

    29. PCR for the Detection of Pathogens in Neonatal Early Onset Sepsis

    Clarissa Oeser, MSc, Marcus Pond, PhD, Philip Butcher, PhD, Alison Bedford Russell, MD, Philipp Henneke, MD, PhD, Ken Laing, PhD, Timothy Planche, MD, PhD, Paul T. Heath, MD, PhD, and Kathryn Harris, PhD

    30. Multiplex qPCR Discriminates Variants of Concern to Enhance Global Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2

    Chantal B. F. Vogels, PhD, Mallery I. Breban, Isabel M. Ott, Tara Alpert, PhD, et al.

    31. Diagnosing Point-of-Care Diagnostics for Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Mitasha Bharadwaj, PhD, Michel Bengtson, PhD, Mirte Golverdingen, MSc, Loulotte Waling, MSc, and Cees Dekker, PhD

    32. Capture and Visualization of Live Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacilli from Tuberculosis Patient Bioaerosols

    Ryan Dinkele, Sophia Gessner, PhD, Andrea McKerry, Bryan Leonard, MPH, et al.

    33. Diagnostic Accuracy of a Novel Tuberculosis Point-of-Care Urine Lipoarabinomannan Assay for People Living with HIV: A Meta-Analysis of Individual In- and Outpatient Data

    Tobias Broger, MSc, Mark P. Nicol, PhD, Rita Székely, PhD, Stephanie Bjerrum, MD, PhD, et al.

    34. History of Thermal Imaging from 1960

    Kurt Ammer, MD, PhD, and Francis Ring, DSc

    35. A Novel Deep Learning-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Method for Detecting Plasmodium falciparum with Fluorescence Digital Microscopy

    Oscar Holmström, MD, PhD, Sebastian Stenman, MD, Antti Suutala, MScEng, Hannu Moilanen, Hakan Kücükel, Billy Ngasala, MD, PhD, Andreas Mårtensson, PhD, Lwidiko Mhamilawa, PhD, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, PhD, Mikael Lundin, MD, Vinod Diwan, PhD, Nina Linder, MD, PhD, and Johan Lundin, PhD

    36. Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Experimental Human Malaria to Identify Organ-Specific Changes in Morphology and Glucose Metabolism: A Prospective Cohort Study

    John Woodford, PhD, Ashley Gillman, PhD, Peter Jenvey, MBBS, Jennie Roberts, MBBS, Stephen Woolley, MSc, Bridget E. Barber, PhD, Melissa Fernandez, Stephen Rose, MD, Paul Thomas, PhD, Nicholas M. Anstey, PhD, and James S. McCarthy, PhD

    37. Chemical Tools for Decoding Redox Signaling at the Host–Microbe Interface

    Elizabeth M. Gordon, MSc, and Stavroula K. Hatzios, PhD

    38. The CRISPR Toolbox in Medical Mycology: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Florent Morio, PhD, Lisa Lombardi, PhD, and Geraldine Butler, PhD

    39. The Potential Impact of Urine-LAM Diagnostics on Tuberculosis Incidence and Mortality: A Modelling Analysis

    Saskia Ricks, PhD, Claudia M. Denkinger, MD, PhD, Samuel G. Schumacher, PhD, Timothy B. Hallett, PhD, and Nimalan Arinaminpathy, PhD

    40. Development of a Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for On-Site Diagnosis of SARS CoV-2

    Woong Sik Jang, Da Hye Lim, Jung Yoon, MD, Ahran Kim, Minsup Lim, Jeonghun Nam, PhD, Richard Yanagihara, MD, MPH, Sook-Won Ryu, MD, Bo Kyeung Jung, PhD, Nam-Hee Ryoo, MD, PhD, and Chae Seung Lim, MD, PhD

    41. A Proteomics-Based Method for Identifying Antigens within Immune Complexes

    Stephanie Menikou, PhD, Andrew J. McArdle, MD, Ming-Shi Li, PhD, Myrsini Kaforou, PhD, Paul R. Langford, PhD, and Michael Levin, PhD

    42. Avidin-Biotin Complex-Based Capture Coating Platform for Universal Influenza Virus Immobilization and Characterization

    Micaela Trexler, PhD, Michelle Brusatori, PhD, and Gregory Auner, PhD

    43. Visualization of Sympathetic Neural Innervation in Human White Adipose Tissue

    Aliki Perdikari, PhD, Tessa Cacciottolo, MD, PhD, Elana Henning, RN, Edson Mendes de Oliveira, PhD, Julia M. Keogh, and I. Sadaf Farooqi, PhD

    44. Brainstem fMRI

    Pengxu Wei, PhD, Zhi Lan, PhD, Zeping Lv, PhD, and Yubo Fan, PhD

    45. Electrodes for Neural Stimulation and Monitoring

    Jonathan R. Tomshine, PhD, and Kevin E. Bennet, PhD

    46. Imaging and Visualizing SARS-CoV-2 in a New Era for Structural Biology

    Kendra E. Leigh, PhD, and Yorgo Modis, PhD

    47. Super-Resolution Microscopy: A Brief History and New Avenues

    Kirti Prakash, PhD, Benedict Diederich, PhD, Rainer Heintzmann, PhD, and Lothar Schermelleh, PhD

    48. End-to-End System for Rapid and Sensitive Early-Detection of SARS-CoV-2 for Resource-Poor and Field-Test Environments Using a $51 Lab-in-a-Backpack

    E. Emily Lin, MSc, Umar A. Razzaque, MSc, Stephen A. Burrows, PhD, and Stoyan K. Smoukov, PhD

    49. A Review of the Leishmanin Skin Test: A Neglected Test for a Neglected Disease

    Jessica Carstens-Kass, Kayla Paulini, Patrick Lypaczewski, MSc, and Greg Matlashewski, PhD

    50. Current Issues in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    National Institutes of Health

    51. On-Chip Liquid Chromatography

    Makoto Tsunoda, PhD

    52. Studying Metabolism with Multi-Organ Chips: New Tools for Disease Modelling, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    Tanvi Shroff, MSc, Kehinde Aina, MSc, Christian Maass, PhD, Madalena Cipriano, PhD, Joeri Lambrecht, PhD, Frank Tacke, MD, PhD, Alexander Mosig, PhD, and Peter Loskill, PhD

    53. From Animaculum to Single Molecules: 300 Years of the Light Microscope

    Adam J. M. Wollman, D. Phil., Richard Nudd, PhD, Erik G. Hedlund, PhD, and Mark C. Leake, PhD

    54. Ultrastructure Expansion Microscopy in Trypanosoma Brucei

    Ana Kalichava, MSc, and Torsten Ochsenreiter, PhD

    55. Pathogenic Prion Structures at High Resolution

    Byron Caughey, PhD, Heidi G. Standke, Efrosini Artikis, PhD, Forrest Hoyt, MSc, and Allison Kraus, PhD


    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD, is president of Bawa Biotech LLC (founded in 2002), a biotech/pharma consultancy and patent law firm based in Ashburn, Virginia, USA. Trained as a microbiologist and biochemist, he is an inventor, author, entrepreneur, professor, and registered patent agent (since 2002) licensed to practice before the US Patent & Trademark Office. He is currently a scientific advisor to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Israel (since 2010), and full professor (adjunct) at Northern Virginia Community College, Annandale, Virginia (since 2004). He is vice president and chief IP officer at Guanine, Inc., Rensselaer, New York (since 2017), a company focused on rapid, accurate detection of infective pathogens. He has served as a principal investigator of various National Cancer Institute (NCI) research grants; most recently as a principal investigator of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant to develop an assay for carbapenemase resistant bacteria. He was an adjunct professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, from 1998 to 2018. After earning a BSc (Honors School) in microbiology, he earned a MS in cancer biology, a PhD in biophysics/biochemistry and an MD. In the 1990s, Dr. Bawa held various positions at the US Patent & Trademark Office, including primary examiner from 1996–2002. Currently, he is a life member of Sigma Xi, cochair of the nanotech and precision medicine committees of the American Bar Association, and founding director of the American Society for Nanomedicine (established in 2008). He has authored over 100 publications, edited 10 texts, and serves on the editorial boards of numerous peer-reviewed journals, including serving as an associate editor of Nanomedicine (Elsevier).

    Gerald F. Audette, PhD, is associate dean, Faculty of Science, professor of chemistry, and member of the Centre for Research on Biomolecular Interactions at York University, Toronto, Canada. His research focuses on the correlation between protein structure and biological activity of proteins involved in bacterial conjugation, in particular, the type 4 secretion system from the conjugative F-plasmid of Escherichia coli. In addition, his research targets the type IV pilins and associated assembly systems from multiple bacterial pathogens and is exploring the adaptation of these protein systems for applications in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine. Dr. Audette is the co-editor of volumes 1–4 of the Jenny Stanford Series on Nanomedicine and is a subject editor of structural chemistry and crystallography for the journal FACETS.

    S. R. Bawa, MSc, PhD, is currently scientific advisor at Bawa Biotech LLC, a biotechnology and patent law firm founded in 2002 and based in Ashburn, Virginia. Previously, he was Founding Chairman and Professor of Biophysics at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India (1964–1992). At Panjab University, he also served as Dean of Foreign Students (1986–1988) and Coordinator of the Biotechnology Center (1986–1988). He was president of the Electron Microscopy Society of India (1986–1992), Secretary of the Indian Biophysical Society (1986–1988), and Founding Secretary of the Northern India Science Association (1966–1992). Dr. Bawa received his BSc (University Gold Medal), MSc (University Gold Medal), and PhD degrees in 1949, 1951, and 1954, respectively, from Panjab University. He was a Fulbright Fellow and Instructor (1958–1960) and a Boese Postdoctoral Research Fellow (1959–1960), both at Columbia University. He was an Instructor (1961–1963) in the Department of Anatomy at Cornell University Medical College. In 1964, at the age of 34, he assumed the position of Founding Head and Reader of the newly established Biophysics Department at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. He was promoted to Professor and Head in 1969. After retiring from Panjab University in 1992, Dr. Bawa joined the David Axelrod Institute of the New York State Department of Health in Albany, New York, from where he retired in 1999. Dr. Bawa has published over 150 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals, books, and conference proceedings. His numerous accolades include Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, Germany (five times); Fulbright Fellowship, US; US Alumni Research Travel Grant, US; Boese Postdoctoral Fellowship, Columbia University, US; British Council Invitee, UK; Diatome Award of the Electron Microscope Society of America; PL-480 Research Project and Appreciation Award, US Department of Agriculture; Kazato Research Award, Japan; and National Lectureship, India. He is an elected member or life member of various professional societies and organizations. He has served on various international scientific committees, advisory boards, government expert panels, and held visiting professorships in the US, Canada, and Europe. He has been a member of various peer-reviewed international journal editorial boards, including Ultramicroscopy (1986–1995, Elsevier), Andrologia (1993–1995, Blackwell/Wiley), Acta Anatomica (1974–1977, Karger), Journal of Ultrastructure Research (1969–1985, Elsevier) and Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology (1970–1977, Università di Bologna). Since 2004, the Dr. S. R. Bawa Merit Scholarship is awarded by Panjab University to a student standing first in the BSc (Honors School) class in biophysics. In 2022, Panjab University presented Dr. Bawa the Distinguished Alumnus Award.


    Bela Patel, MD, is a professor of medicine, vice dean of Healthcare Quality, and division director for Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine at the McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. She is regional chief medical officer and executive medical director of Critical Care for Memorial Hermann Hospital Texas Medical Center. Dr. Patel attended the University of Texas in Austin and the University of Texas McGovern Medical School in Houston. She completed her training in internal medicine in 1996 and subsequently a fellowship in pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine in 1999 also at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. Dr. Patel was appointed as the chief of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine in 2002 and later appointed the chief of Medicine at Lyndon B. Johnson General Hospital and vice chair of the Department of Medicine in 2007. In 2009, she became the assistant chief medical officer and subsequently regional chief medical officer in 2017 for Memorial Hermann Hospital Texas Medical Center. Through her work in quality and patient safety, she was inducted as a fellow in Clinical Safety and Effectiveness by the University of Texas System. Dr. Patel was appointed as the assistant dean of Healthcare Quality in 2011 and the vice dean in 2017 and supports the 18 vice chairs of quality in Medicine at McGovern Medical School. Dr. Patel’s research interest includes sepsis, ARDS, pulmonary hypertension, cognitive complexity and error reduction in critical care, and quality improvement implementation.

    Bruce D. Johnson, PhD, is a professor of medicine, professor of physiology, and a consultant in the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Additionally, he has joint appointments in the Division of Preventive, Occupational and Aerospace Medicine and in the Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering. He is the director of the Mayo Clinical Research Unit’s Energy Balance Core Laboratory and directs his own research laboratory in human integrative and environmental physiology. The majority of his research has focused on factors limiting human performance in various clinical syndromes, in athletes, and under extreme environmental conditions. He has led field studies in Antarctica, funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF), and on Mount Aconcagua in Argentina, Mount Everest, and Mount Kilimanjaro. His research has involved studying unique populations such as breath-hold divers in Croatia and F-22 pilots from the US Air Force. His clinical research focuses on novel methods for the detection and tracking of chronic disease as well as environmental factors that may be involved in disease risk. His laboratory also works closely with consumer and medical device companies that track health status through wearable or passive sensing as well as with early-phase supplement and pharmaceutical company products. His research has been funded by the NIH, DOD, NSF, State of Minnesota, and industry.

    Rajeev Khanna, MD, is an internal medicine consultant practicing in a group practice in Northern Virginia, as a part of Loudoun Medical Group. He is an internist with interest in long-term management of chronic health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and heart failure. He obtained his MBBS and MD in internal medicine from Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India, Dr. Khanna was in training for neurology postgraduation (DM) at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India before moving to the United States. He completed his residency in internal medicine at PG Hospital Center, Maryland, USA, in 1994. He has been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals.