1st Edition

Advances in Surgical and Medical Specialties

Edited By Raj Bawa Copyright 2023
    1410 Pages 305 Color & 101 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    1410 Pages 305 Color & 101 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    The pace and sophistication of advances in medicine in the past two decades have been truly breathtaking. This has necessitated a growing need for comprehensive references that highlight the current issues in specific sectors of medicine. Keeping this in mind, each volume in the Current Issues in Medicine series is a stand‐alone text that provides a broad survey of various critical topics in a focused area of medicine—all accomplished in a user-friendly yet interconnected format. However, unlike other series on medicine or medical texts, this series focuses on current trends, perspectives, and issues in medicine that are central to healthcare delivery in the 21st century. Medical practitioners today continue to improve upon techniques and technologies to provide procedures for patients that are safer, faster, less invasive, and more accurate —a direct consequence of advances in technological breakthroughs from a variety of medical and engineering fields. In order to render modern patient care, it is imperative that surgeons and medical practitioners stay current with these latest advances in their respective specialties. Given this backdrop, the specific topics covered in this volume and the expertise of the contributing authors accurately reflect the rapidly evolving areas within surgical and medical specialties. While recognising how expansive and multifaceted medicine is, Advances in Surgical and Medical Specialties addresses crucial recent advances in surgical and medical specialties, intergrating the knowledge and experience of experts from academia and practicing surgeons. The multidisciplinary approach reflected here makes this volume a valuable reference resource for medical practictioners, medical students, nurses, fellows, residents, undergraduate and graduate students, educators, venture capitalists, policymakers, and biomedical researchers. A wide audience will benefit from having this volume on their bookshelf: health care systems, the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and government.


    Corresponding Authors

    Note from the Series Editor

    1. Surgical and Medical Specialties: A Journey in Pictures

    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD

    2. Lymph Nodes—The Neglected Battlefield in Tuberculosis

    Sharie Keanne C. Ganchua, PhD, Alexander G. White, PhD, Edwin C. Klein, PhD,

    and JoAnne L. Flynn, PhD

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Concluding Remarks

    2.3 Methods

    3. Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2021

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    3.1 CKD Is Common Among US Adults

    3.2 CKD by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity

    3.3 CKD Risk Factors

    3.4 Ways to Prevent CKD

    3.5 Treatment to Lower Blood Pressure

    3.6 Testing and Treatment: Find It Early, Treat It Early

    3.7 CKD Related Health Problems

    3.8 People with CKD Can Lower Their Risk for Kidney Failure

    4. Combatting Sepsis: A Public Health Perspective

    Raymund B. Dantes, MD, and Lauren Epstein, MD

    4.1 National Trends in Sepsis Burden

    4.2 Comprehensive Sepsis Prevention Framework

    4.3 Building Partnerships and Increasing Awareness

    4.4 Future Public Health Opportunities and Challenges

    5. Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation: Closing a Virtuous Circle

    Ying X. Gue, PhD, and Gregory Y. H. Lip, MD

    6. Cardiovascular Events after Community-Acquired Pneumonia:

    A Global Perspective with Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of

    Observational Studies

    António Tralhão, MD, and Pedro Póvoa, PhD

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Materials and Methods

    6.3 Results

    6.4 Discussion

    6.5 Future Directions

    7. Risk Factors for Recurrent Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children and

    Young Adults

    Beata Sarecka-Hujar, PhD, DSc, and Ilona Kopyta, PhD, DSc

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Review Methodology

    7.3 Prevalence of AIS Recurrence

    7.4 Risk Factors for Recurrent AIS in a Pediatric Population

    7.5 Risk Factors for Recurrent AIS in Young Adults

    7.6 Secondary Prevention of AIS

    7.7 Conclusions

    8. Cellular Mechanisms of Human Atherogenesis: Focus on Chronification

    of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Mutations

    Alexander M. Markin, PhD, Igor A. Sobenin, MD, PhD, Andrey V. Grechko, PhD,

    Dongwei Zhang, PhD, and Alexander N. Orekhov, PhD

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Cellular Mechanisms of Atherogenesis

    8.3 Variants of the Nuclear Genome Associated with Atherosclerosis

    8.4 Variants of Mitochondrial Genome Associated with


    8.5 Role of Mitochondrial Mutations in Cellular Mechanism of

    Atherosclerosis; Chronification of Inflammation

    8.6 Conclusions

    9. The Microbiota of the Human Gut and Cardiometabolic Health

    Angelos K. Sikalidis, PhD, Adeline Maykish, and Aleksandra S. Kristo, PhD

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The Microbiome

    9.3 Major Metabolic Contributors to Microbiome Profile Identity

    9.4 Dysbiosis and the Development of T2DM

    9.5 Gut Microbiota and CVD

    9.6 Concluding Remarks

    10. Pharmaceutical Strategies for Reducing LDL-C and Risk of

    Cardiovascular Disease

    Alberico L. Catapano, PhD, Lale Tokgözoğlu, MD, Alberto Mello e Silva, MD,

    and Eric Bruckert, MD

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 The Importance of Potency in Statin Monotherapy

    10.3 Alternative Strategies to Achieve LDL-C Goal

    10.4 PCSK9, a New Therapeutic Target

    10.5 Conclusion

    11. Atherogenic Markers in Predicting Cardiovascular Risk and Targeting

    Residual Cardiovascular Risk

    Alberico L. Catapano, PhD, Lale Tokgözoğlu, MD, Alberto Mello e Silva, MD,

    and Eric Bruckert, MD

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Markers of Atherogenic Risk

    11.3 Residual Cardiovascular Risk

    11.4 Conclusions

    12. The Continuous Quest for More Effective and Safer

    Thromboprophylaxis Protocols

    Mario Ganau, MD, PhD, MBA, Sibel E. Huet, MD, Marco Meloni, MD,

    Salvatore Chibbaro, MD, PhD, and Nikolaos Syrmos, MD, PhD

    12.1 Thrombosis: A Preventable Healthcare Burden

    12.2 Implementation Strategies and Risk Stratification

    12.3 Prophylaxis Options with Comparison of Their Efficacy and Risks

    12.4 Screening Methods and Secondary Prophylaxis

    12.5 New Horizons: Emerging Prophylaxis Methods, Screening

    Strategies and Treatment Policies

    12.6 Conclusion

    13. Wound Healing: Cellular Mechanisms and Pathological Outcomes

    Holly N. Wilkinson, PhD, and Matthew J. Hardman, PhD

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Cellular Aspects of Acute Wound Repair

    13.3 When Healing Fails—Factors Influencing Chronic Wound


    13.4 Translational Techniques to Enhance Clinical Understanding of


    13.5 Current Therapies and Future Opportunities

    13.6 Conclusions

    14. Advances in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Efficacy, Effectiveness,


    Karin Sundström, MD, PhD, and K. Miriam Elfström, PhD

    14.1 Evolution of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination

    14.2 Prospects for Cervical Cancer Elimination

    14.3 Opportunities and Challenges Posed by Resource Levels

    14.4 Cervical Screening in the Presence of HPV Vaccination

    14.5 Future Perspectives

    15. Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort


    Fatma Khinaifis Al-thoubaity, MD

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Materials and Methods

    15.3 Results

    15.4 Discussion

    15.5 Conclusion

    16. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: From Biology to Therapy

    Roberto Corchado-Cobos, MSc, Natalia García-Sancha, MSc,

    Rogelio González-Sarmiento, MD, PhD, Jesús Pérez-Losada, MD, PhD,

    and Javier Cañueto, MD, PhD

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Molecular Basis of CSCC

    16.3 Treatment of CSCC

    16.4 Pharmacologically Induced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    16.5 Conclusions

    17. Brain and Testis: More Alike Than Previously Thought?

    Bárbara Matos, MSc, Stephen J. Publicover, PhD, Luis Filipe C. Castro, PhD,

    Pedro J. Esteves, PhD, and Margarida Fardilha

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Brain and Testis

    17.3 Neuron and Sperm

    17.4 Concluding Remarks

    18. Myomatous Erythrocytosis Syndrome: A Case Series

    Glaiza S. de Guzman, MD, and Eileen M. Manalo, MD, MSc

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Results

    18.3 Discussion

    18.4 Conclusions

    19. Vascular Involvements in Cholangiocarcinoma: Tips and Tricks

    Roberta Angelico, Bruno Sensi, Alessandro Parente, Leandro Siragusa, et al.

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Materials and Methods

    19.3 Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Vascular Involvement

    19.4 Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma with Vascular Involvement

    19.5 Conclusions

    20. Rehabilitation for People Living with Dementia: A Practical

    Framework of Positive Support

    Linda Clare, PhD, ScD

    20.1 Why Is Rehabilitation Relevant?

    20.2 How Can Cognitive Rehabilitation Benefit People with Dementia

    and Carers?

    20.3 Where Do Other Nonpharmacological Interventions Fit In?

    20.4 How Could Services Adopt a Rehabilitation Model?

    20.5 Why Should We Acknowledge the Right to Rehabilitation?

    21. Are Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    the Same Disease?

    Kurt A. Jellinger, MD, PhD, and Amos D. Korczyn, MD, PhD

    21.1 Background

    21.2 Conclusions

    21.3 Future Perspectives

    22. Regenerative Medicine: Could Parkinson’s Be the First

    Neurodegenerative Disease to Be Cured?

    Mariacruz L. Díaz, DVM, MSc, PhD

    22.1 Multiplication and Differentiation of NSCs

    22.2 Production, Transplantation and Characterization of Precursor

    DOP Aminergic Neurons

    22.3 Rejection of Transplanted Cells

    22.4 From Bench to Bed

    22.5 Future Perspective

    23. Changes in the Functional Brain Network of Children Undergoing

    Repeated Epilepsy Surgery: An EEG Source Connectivity Study

    Giulia Iandolo, MS, Nitish Chourasia, MD, Georgios Ntolkeras, MD,

    Joseph R. Madsen, MD, et al.

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Materials and Methods

    23.3 Results

    23.4 Discussion

    23.5 Conclusions

    24. Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Atrial Fibrillation: A Potential

    Contributor to the Increased Risk of Dementia and Worsening of

    Stroke Outcomes

    Ritambhara Aryal and Adjanie Patabendige, PhD

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 The Structure and Function of the Blood–Brain Barrier

    24.3 Mechanisms of Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption

    24.4 Effects of Altered Cerebral Blood Flow on the Blood–Brain


    24.5 Disrupted Peripheral and Cerebral Blood Flow in Atrial


    24.6 What Are the Underlying Mechanisms that Increase the Risk

    of Stroke and Dementia in Atrial Fibrillation?

    24.7 Concluding Remarks

    25. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy: From Pathophysiology to

    Outcomes—Overview of an Emerging Medical Problem

    Gabriele Savioli, MD, PhD

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Definition

    25.3 Pathophysiology

    25.4 Specials Clinical Forms of TIC

    25.5 Diagnosis

    25.6 Outcomes

    25.7 Hints for Therapy

    25.8 Management of Patients with Severe Trauma in an ER

    26. Advances in Fractures and Dislocations of the Hip Joint

    Thomas Pepper, MD, Philip Ahrens, MD, and M. Zahid Saeed, MD

    26.1 Hip Fractures

    26.2 Traumatic Dislocations of the Hip Joint

    27. Predicting Scoliosis Progression: A Challenge for Researchers and


    Sabrina Donzelli, MD, Fabio Zaina, MD, and Stefano Negrini, PhD

    28. Prosthetic and Mechanical Parameters of the Facial Bone under the

    Load of Different Dental Implant Shapes: A Parametric Study

    Marco Cicciù, DDS, MSc, PhD, Gabriele Cervino, DDS, MSc, PhD,

    Antonella Terranova, DDS, MSc, Giacomo Risitano, PhD, et al.

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Results

    28.3 Discussion

    28.4 Materials and Methods

    28.5 Conclusions

    29. Circulating Arsenic Is Associated with Long-Term Risk of Graft Failure

    in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Camilo G. Sotomayor, MD, Dion Groothof, Joppe J. Vodegel, MD,

    Tomás A. Gacitúa, MD, et al.

    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Methods

    29.3 Results

    29.4 Discussion

    29.5 Conclusions

    30. Successful Aging and Chronic Osteoarthritis

    Ray Marks, EdD

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Methods

    30.3 Results

    30.4 Discussion

    30.5 Conclusions

    30.6 Future Research and Practical Challenges

    31. Radiographic Analysis on the Distortion of the Anatomy of First

    Metatarsal Head in Dorsoplantar Projection

    Jessica Grande-del-Arco, PhD, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, MD, PhD,

    Eva María Martínez-Jiménez, PhD, Israel Casado-Hernández, PhD,

    Daniel López-López, DP, PhD, and Marta Losa-Iglesias, RN, PhD

    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Material and Methods

    31.3 Results

    31.4 Discussion

    31.5 Conclusions

    32. Clinical Aspects and Current Therapeutic Approaches for Fibrodysplasia

    Ossificans Progressiva

    Hiroshi Kitoh, MD, PhD

    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Epidemiology

    32.3 Pathophysiology

    32.4 Natural Clinical Course

    32.5 Skeletal Malformations

    32.6 Managements and Treatments

    32.7 On-Going Clinical Trials for FOP

    32.8 Conclusions

    33. Comparison and Lessons Learned from Neglected Tropical Diseases

    and Tuberculosis

    Alice Wang, PhD, Adam MacNeil, MPH, PhD, and Susan Maloney, MD, MHSc

    33.1 Introduction

    33.2 Underlying Burden of Disease

    33.3 Influence of Poverty and Development

    33.4 Neglect

    33.5 Conclusions

    34. Current Issues in Antibiotic Antimicrobial Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    34.1 About Antibiotic Resistance

    34.2 Antibiotic Resistance Threatens Everyone

    34.3 Brief History of Resistance and Antibiotics

    34.4 Fighting Antibiotic Resistance

    34.5 Antibiotic Resistance: 5 Things to Know

    34.6 Antibiotic-Resistant Infections Threaten Modern Medicine

    34.7 Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Affects Humans, Animals

    and the Environment

    34.8 How Antibiotic Resistance Moves Directly Germ to Germ

    34.9 Protect People and Animals, Combat Antibiotic Resistance:

    Actions for Livestock and Poultry Producers

    35. Ending AIDS as a Public Health Threat by 2030: Time to Reset Targets

    for 2025

    Paul R. De Lay, MD, Adèle Benzaken, MD, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, PhD,

    Sani Aliyu, MD, et al.

    35.1 Introduction

    35.2 The Process and Structures

    35.3 Addressing the Key Challenges, Concerns, and Priorities

    35.4 Conclusions

    36. 9 Questions to Help Make Sense of Health Research

    National Institutes of Health

    37. Transdisciplinary Research and Clinical Priorities for Better Health

    Luigi Fontana, MD, PhD, Alessio Fasano, MD, Yap Seng Chong, MD,

    Paolo Vineis, PhD, and Walter C. Willett, MD, Dr PH

    37.1 Lifestyle and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    37.2 Intergenerational and Life Course Consequences of

    Preconception and in utero Health

    37.3 Ecological Footprint of Modern Medical Systems

    37.4 Intensive Animal Farming and Pollution

    37.5 Benefits of Investing in Preventive Science, Education,

    and Medicine

    37.6 Conclusions and Future Directions

    38. Current Issues about Health News Stories

    National Institutes of Health

    38.1 When Clinical Research is in the News

    38.2 Health Approaches in the News

    38.3 Information Missing from Health Stories

    38.4 What’s Missing: Important Details!

    38.5 What’s Missing: Information on Side Effects!

    38.6 What’s Missing: The Full Story!

    38.7 What’s Missing: Humans!

    38.8 Conflicting Health News

    38.9 Accuracy in the Media

    38.10 What the Media Says about Complementary Health Approaches

    38.11 Is It Real Online News? Or Just Advertising?

    38.12 Checklist for Understanding Health News Stories

    38.13 Remember…

    38.14 Supplementary Information

    39. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s in

    a Name?

    National Institutes of Health

    39.1 Complementary versus Alternative

    39.2 Integrative Health

    39.3 Complementary Health Approaches

    40. Current Issues in Complementary and Integrative Health

    National Institutes of Health

    40.1 4 Things to Know about Dietary Supplements for Eye Conditions

    40.2 5 Things to Know about Omega-3s for Heart Disease

    40.3 6 Tips: How Herbs Can Interact with Medicines

    40.4 7 Tips: What You Need to Know about Natural Products for

    Musculoskeletal Inflammation

    40.5 6 Things You Should Know: The Science of Chronic Pain and

    Complementary Health Practices

    40.6 4 Tips: Mind and Body Practices for Common Aging-Related


    40.7 6 Things You Need to Know about Cancer and Complementary

    Health Approaches

    40.8 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Practices for

    Cognitive Function, Dementia, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    40.9 4 Tips: Asthma and Complementary Health Practices

    40.10 10 Things to Know about the Science of Health

    40.11 5 Things to Know about Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    40.12 7 Things to Know about Complementary Approaches for


    40.13 5 Tips: Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the

    Science Say?

    40.14 5 Things You Should Know about Yoga

    40.15 5 Things to Know about Chronic Low-Back Pain and

    Complementary Health Practices

    40.16 4 Things to Know about Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    40.17 7 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    40.18 4 Tips: Start Talking with Your Health Care Providers about

    Complementary Health Approaches

    40.19 7 Things to Know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    40.20 5 Tips: Natural Products Used for Common Aging-Related


    40.21 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for


    40.22 7 Tips: Know the Facts about Supplements Marketed for Weight


    40.23 5 Things to Know about Sleep Disorders and Complementary

    Health Approaches

    40.24 6 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for

    Seasonal Affective Disorder

    40.25 5 Tips: What Consumers Need to Know about Dietary Supplements

    40.26 5 Things to Know about St. John’s Wort and Depression

    40.27 6 Things to Know about Massage Therapy for Health Purposes

    40.28 7 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for


    40.29 6 Things to Know about Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    40.30 5 Tips: What You Should Know about Complementary Health

    Approaches for BPH

    40.31 8 Things to Know about Mind and Body Approaches for Health

    Problems Facing Military Personnel and Veterans

    40.32 5 Tips: What You Should Know about Tai Chi for Health

    40.33 6 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for

    Seasonal Allergy Relief

    40.34 7 Tips: What You Should Know about Complementary Health

    Approaches for Multiple Sclerosis

    40.35 7 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for


    40.36 6 Tips: What You Need to Know about Complementary Health

    Approaches for Skin Conditions

    40.37 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for

    Parkinson’s Disease

    40.38 5 Myths about Popular Natural Products Marketed for Disease

    Prevention and Wellness

    40.39 7 Things to Know about Mind and Body Practices for Children

    and Teens

    40.40 6 Things to Know about Travel-Related Ailments and

    Complementary Health Approaches

    40.41 6 Tips: IBS and Complementary Health Practices

    40.42 5 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for

    Hepatitis C

    40.43 5 Things to Know about Probiotics

    40.44 5 Things to Know about Mind and Body Approaches for

    Substance Use Disorders

    40.45 4 Things to Know about Menopausal Symptoms and

    Complementary Health Practices

    40.46 6 Things to Know When Selecting a Complementary Health


    40.47 5 Tips: What You Should Know about Popular Herbs

    40.48 8 Things to Know about Meditation for Health

    40.49 6 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for

    Quitting Smoking

    40.50 5 Tips: What You Should Know about High Blood Cholesterol

    40.51 8 Things to Know about Depression and Complementary Health


    40.52 10 Things to Know about Dietary Supplements for Children and


    40.53 4 Things To Know About Menopausal Symptoms and

    Complementary Health Practices

    40.54 Ayurvedic Medicine: In Depth

    40.55 Terms Related to Complementary and Integrative Health

    41. Skin Conditions and Complementary Health Approaches: What the

    Science Says

    National Institutes of Health

    41.1 Atopic Dermatitis

    41.2 Psoriasis

    41.3 Acne

    41.4 Impetigo

    41.5 Rosacea

    42. Nutrition and Health across the Lifespan: Guidelines and


    U.S. Department of Agriculture

    42.1 Guideline 1: Follow a Healthy Dietary Pattern at Every Life Stage

    42.2 Guideline 2: Customize and Enjoy Food and Beverage Choices

    to Reflect Personal Preferences, Cultural Traditions, and

    Budgetary Considerations

    42.3 Guideline 3: Focus on Meeting Food Group Needs With

    Nutrient-Dense Foods and Beverages, and Stay Within Calorie


    42.4 Guideline 4: Limit Foods and Beverages Higher in Added Sugars,

    Saturated Fat, and Sodium, and Limit Alcoholic Beverages

    42.5 Support Healthy Dietary Patterns for All Americans

    43. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    National Institutes of Health

    43.1 What’s the Bottom Line?

    43.2 What Are Dietary Supplements?

    43.3 What Are Herbal Supplements?

    43.4 Dietary Supplement Use in the United States

    43.5 Federal Regulation of Dietary Supplements

    43.6 What the Science Says about the Effectiveness of Dietary


    43.7 What the Science Says about the Safety and Side Effects of

    Dietary Supplements

    43.8 Safety Considerations

    44. Association of Genetic Liability to Smoking Initiation with e-Cigarette

    Use in Young Adults: A Cohort Study

    Jasmine N. Khouja, PhD, Robyn E. Wootton, PhD, Amy E. Taylor, PhD,

    George Davey Smith, MD, DSc, and Marcus R. Munafò, PhD

    44.1 Introduction

    44.2 Results

    44.3 Discussion

    45. Current Issues in Vaccine Development

    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD

    45.1 Vaccine Development: An Introductory Overview

    45.2 How Vaccines Work

    45.3 Vaccine Development

    45.4 Improving Vaccine R&D

    45.5 Technologies and Approaches for Vaccine R&D

    45.6 Addressing Challenges Related to Vaccine R&D: Policy Options

    45.7 Technologies and Approaches That May Enhance Vaccine Testing

    45.8 Challenges Related to Vaccine Testing: Policy Options

    45.9 Technologies and Approaches for Vaccine Manufacturing

    45.10 Challenges Related to Vaccine Manufacturing: Policy Options

    45.11 Vaccine Development: Economics and Role of Incentives

    45.12 Economic Challenges to Vaccine Development: Policy Options

    46. Cannabis Products Containing Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol:

    Increased Availability and Reports of Adverse Events

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    46.1 Introduction

    46.2 Background

    46.3 Recommendations for the Public and Consumers

    46.4 Recommendations for Public Health Departments and Poison

    Control Centers, Including Those in Locations Where Laws Only

    Permit Hemp Marketplaces

    46.5 Recommendations for Retailers Selling Cannabis Products 1013

    46.6 Recommendations for Healthcare Providers

    46.7 For More Information

    47. Natural Doesn’t Necessarily Mean Safer, or Better

    National Institutes of Health

    48. How Medications and Supplements Can Interact

    National Institutes of Health

    48.1 Test Your Knowledge: Are These Statements True or False?

    48.2 Talk With Your Health Care Providers

    48.3 Some Supplements May Increase the Effects—and Side

    Effects—of Drugs

    48.4 Some Supplements May Decrease the Effects of Drugs

    48.5 More about St. John’s Wort

    48.6 Interactions with Over-the-Counter Drugs

    48.7 When Drug-Supplement Interactions Are Especially Important

    48.8 Drugs with a Narrow Therapeutic Range

    48.9 If You’re Going to Have Surgery

    48.10 Tips on Reading Supplement Labels

    48.11 Here’s a Hint for Your Next Visit to a Health Care Provider

    49. Antioxidants: Current Issues and Future Trends

    National Institutes of Health

    49.1 Introduction

    49.2 Key Points

    49.3 About Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants

    49.4 Use of Antioxidant Supplements in the United States

    49.5 Safety

    49.6 What the Science Says

    49.7 If You Are Considering Antioxidant Supplements

    49.8 NCCIH- and NIH-Funded Research

    49.9 For More Information

    50. Hearing Loss and Hearing Aids: Current Issues

    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD

    50.1 What Is Hearing Loss?

    50.2 What Noises Cause Hearing Loss?

    50.3 How Does Loud Noise Cause Hearing Loss?

    50.4 What Is Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    50.5 How Can I Tell If I Have a Hearing Problem?

    50.6 Who Can I Turn to for Help with My Hearing Loss?

    50.7 Why Am I Losing My Hearing?

    50.8 What Is an Audiogram?

    50.9 What Treatments and Devices Can Help?

    50.10 Hearing Aids: More Details

    50.11 What Are Some Features for Hearing Aids?

    50.12 Hearing Aids and How They Work

    50.13 Are There Different Styles of Hearing Aids?

    50.14 Are New Types of Aids Available?

    50.15 What Is the Difference between Analog and Digital Hearing Aids?

    50.16 Which Hearing Aid Will Work Best for Me?

    50.17 How Do I Get a Hearing Evaluation before Getting Hearing Aids?

    50.18 What Is the Difference between Prescription and Over-the

    Counter Hearing Aids?

    50.19 Who Are OTC Hearing Aids for?

    50.20 What Questions Should I Ask before Buying a Hearing Aid?

    50.21 How Can I Adjust to My Hearing Aid?

    50.22 How Can I Care for My Hearing Aid? 1075

    50.23 Can I Obtain Financial Assistance for a Hearing Aid?

    50.24 Hearing Aids vs. Personal Sound Amplification Products

    51. Bacterial Evolution during Human Infection: Adapt and Live or Adapt

    and Die

    Matthew J. Culyba, MD, PhD, and Daria Van Tyne, PhD

    51.1 Introduction

    51.2 Conclusions

    52. Roadblocks in Chagas Disease Care in Endemic and Nonendemic

    Countries: Argentina, Colombia, Spain, and the United States.

    The NET-Heart Project

    Andres F. Miranda-Arboleda, MD, Ezequiel Jose Zaidel, MD, Rachel Marcus, MD,

    Maria Jesus Pinazo, MD, PhD, et al.

    52.1 Introduction

    52.2 Methods

    52.3 Results

    52.4 Discussion

    52.5 Conclusions

    53. Pathogens Infecting the Central Nervous System

    Yohann Le Govic, PharmD, PhD, Baptiste Demey, Julien Cassereau, PhD,

    Yong-Sun Bahn, PhD, and Nicolas Papon, PhD

    54. Current Issues in Vaccines

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    54.1 History of Vaccines

    54.2 Common Ingredients in U.S. Licensed Vaccines

    54.3 Understanding the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    54.4 Science Summary: CDC Studies on Thimerosal in Vaccines

    54.5 Pregnancy and Vaccination

    54.6 Understanding Thimerosal, Mercury, and Vaccine Safety

    54.7 2022 Recommended Immunizations for Children from Birth

    through 6 Years Old

    54.8 2022 Recommended Immunizations for Children 7–18 Years

    54.9 Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for Ages 19 Years

    or Older

    55. What Are Embryonic Stem Cells and How Can They Help Us?

    Eran Meshorer, PhD

    55.1 It All Begins in Fertilization, When the Sperm Meets the Egg

    55.2 Cloning

    55.3 Therapeutic Cloning

    55.4 Reprogramming

    55.5 Therapy?

    55.6 Addendum by the Series Editor, Dr. Raj Bawa: The Future of

    Embryonic Stem Cells

    56. The Rise and Rise of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations

    Conor Lawless, MEng, PhD, Laura Greaves, PhD, Amy K. Reeve, PhD,

    Doug M. Turnbull, PhD, MD, and Amy E. Vincent, PhD

    56.1 Evolutionary Aspects of Mitochondrial Genetics

    56.2 Clonal Expansion of mtDNA Mutations

    56.3 Population Dynamics of mtDNA Point Mutations

    56.4 Population Dynamics of mtDNA Deletions

    56.5 Important Challenges and Unanswered Questions

    56.6 Modelling Clonal Expansion

    56.7 Conclusion and Future Perspectives

    57. Hallmarks of Cancer—the New Testament

    Sasi S. Senga, MSc, and Richard P. Grose, PhD

    57.1 A Historical Perspective on Cancer

    57.2 Hallmarks of Cancer

    57.3 New Hallmark 1: Dedifferentiation and Transdifferentiation

    57.4 New Hallmark 2: Epigenetic Dysregulation

    57.5 New Hallmark 3: Altered Microbiome

    57.6 New Hallmark 4: Altered Neuronal Signalling

    57.7 Conclusion

    58. Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease

    Innocence Harvey, PhD, Anik Boudreau, and Jacqueline M. Stephens, PhD

    58.1 Introduction

    58.2 Adipose Tissue Expansion and Development

    58.3 Inflammation

    58.4 Location of Lipid Storage

    58.5 Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Insulin Resistance

    58.6 Endocrine Functions within Adipose Tissue

    58.7 Emerging Approaches to Combat Adipose Tissue-Derived

    Metabolic Dysfunction

    58.8 Concluding Remarks

    59. Viral Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Male Reproductive


    Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, PhD, Anandan Das, MSc, Niraj Kumar Jha, PhD,

    Kavindra Kumar Kesari, PhD, et al.

    59.1 Introduction

    59.2 SARS-CoV-2: History, Origin and Transmission

    59.3 Possible Mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 Invasion into Host Cells and

    Immune Pattern of Infection

    59.4 Effect on the Male Reproductive System

    59.5 SARS-CoV-2 and Male Fertility

    59.6 Gender-Based Susceptibility

    59.7 Conclusion

    59.8 Future Perspectives

    60. Elevated CO2 Modulates Airway Contractility

    Masahiko Shigemura, PhD, and Jacob I. Sznajder, MD

    60.1 Introduction

    60.2 Hypercapnia-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    60.3 Respiratory Acidosis-Related Bronchodilation

    60.4 Effect of Hypocapnia on Airway Contractility

    60.5 Conclusion



    Raj Bawa, PhD, MD, is president of Bawa Biotech LLC (founded in 2002), a biotech/pharma consultancy and patent law firm based in Ashburn, Virginia, USA. Trained as a microbiologist and biochemist, he is an inventor, author, entrepreneur, professor, and registered patent agent (since 2002) licensed to practice before the US Patent & Trademark Office. He is currently a scientific advisor to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Israel (since 2010), and full professor (adjunct) at Northern Virginia Community College, Annandale, Virginia (since 2004). He is vice president and chief IP officer at Guanine, Inc., Rensselaer, New York (since 2017), a company focused on rapid, accurate detection of infective pathogens. He has served as a principal investigator of various National Cancer Institute (NCI) research grants; most recently as a principal investigator of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant to develop an assay for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria. He was an adjunct professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, from 1998 to 2018. After earning a BSc (Honors School) in microbiology, he earned an MS in cancer biology, a PhD in biophysics/biochemistry, and an MD. In the 1990s, Dr. Bawa held various positions at the US Patent & Trademark Office, including primary examiner from 1996–2002. Currently, he is a life member of Sigma Xi, cochair of the nanotech and precision medicine committees of the American Bar Association, and founding director of the American Society for Nanomedicine (established in 2008). He has authored over 100 publications, edited 10 texts, and serves on the editorial boards of numerous peer-reviewed journals, including serving as an associate editor of Nanomedicine (Elsevier).