Meritocracy today involves the idea that whatever your social position at birth, society ought to offer enough opportunity and mobility for ‘talent’ to combine with ‘effort’ in order to ‘rise to the top’. This idea is one of the most prevalent social and cultural tropes of our time, as palpable in the speeches of politicians as in popular culture. In this book Jo Littler argues that meritocracy is the key cultural means of legitimation for contemporary neoliberal culture – and that whilst it promises opportunity, it in fact creates new forms of social division.
Against Meritocracy is split into two parts. Part I explores the genealogies of meritocracy within social theory, political discourse and working cultures. It traces the dramatic U-turn in meritocracy’s meaning, from socialist slur to a contemporary ideal of how a society should be organised. Part II uses a series of case studies to analyse the cultural pull of popular ‘parables of progress’, from reality TV to the super-rich and celebrity CEOs, from social media controversies to the rise of the ‘mumpreneur’. Paying special attention to the role of gender, ‘race’ and class, this book provides new conceptualisations of the meaning of meritocracy in contemporary culture and society.
"This is a marvellously rich and timely book. It is meticulously researched and wide ranging in focus. Jo Littler pins down with precision the key role played by the idea of meritocracy in the political and cultural neoliberal strategy."
- Professor Angela McRobbie, Media and Communications, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
"Against Meritocracy is a tour de force of political analysis. But it's also a landmark political book, charting pathways beyond the leading social beliefs of our time."
- Professor Andrew Ross, Social and Cultural Analysis, New York University, USA
"In Against Meritocracy, Jo Littler elegantly and persuasively weaves together histories and discourses of the concept "meritocracy," and theorizes about the longevity of this concept even in the face of overwhelming evidence that this concept does not "work" in culture, in politics, in our everyday lives. Here she offers an important new angle on the familiar assumptions about meritocracy, and importantly demonstrates how these assumptions are put into practice in ways that benefit the privileged. This brilliant book is so important; Littler’s refusal to make totalizing statements about what, and how, meritocracy means, is a major, and necessary, contribution."
- Professor Sarah Banet-Weiser, Communication, USC Annenberg, USA
"Meritocracy, as legitimating creed for capitalism-as-culture, has been widely studied, but less than adequately theorized. In a commanding new study, Jo Littler subjects the myth of upward mobility to searching critical analysis, probing its historical resilience, its pervasive presence in popular discourse, and its insidious effects as an ideology that continues, amidst plutocratic rule and widening structural inequality, to promote faith in the elusive "ladder of opportunity"."
- Professor Jean Comaroff, African and African American Studies, Harvard University, USA
"Against Meritocracy has an important role to play in informing the growing movement working to sweep away the Tory government."
- IAN SINCLAIR, Peace News
"Littler’s compelling argument of the damage, both ideological and material, caused by the workings of meritocracy needs to be heeded. […] Against Meritocracy is an important and timely book that reminds us it is time to abandon meritocracy as elitist, inequitable, and well past its sell-by-date."
- Diane Reay, University of Cambridge
"Littler offers a systematic and brilliant analysis of the kind of cultural work that the incorporation of meritocratic ideals has carried out in the Anglo-American world, particularly since the 1980s"
- Dr Catherine Rottenberg
List of illustrations
Introduction: Ladders and Snakes
Meritocracy as plutocracy
What’s wrong with meritocracy? Five problems
Meritocracy as social system and as ideological discourse
How this book is organised
Part one: Genealogies
Chapter one: Meritocracy’s genealogies in social theory
Never start with the dictionary
Early genealogies, histories and geographies
Ladders and level playing field
Socialist roots and critique
Social democratic meritocracy
The critique of educational essentialism
‘Just’ meritocracy? The beginnings of neoliberal meritocracy
Meritocracy in the neoliberal meritocracy
Chapter two: ‘Rising up’: gender, ethnicity, class and the meritocratic deficit
See where your talent takes you
Partial progression and painful ladders: mid century welfare
Pulling rank: problems with welfarist ‘rising up’
Parables of progress: luminous media fables
Not so cool: unequal employment
Selling inequality: post-feminism, post-race….post-class?
Neoliberal justice narratives
The egalitarian and the meritocratic deficit
Chapter three: The movement of meritocracy in political rhetoric
Thatcherism in Britain
Blairism and beyond
Tragi-comedy: Bojo’s ‘hard work’
Blue-collar billionaires: Farage, Trump and the destabilisation of merit
Theresa May and the Middle England meritocrats
Aspiration for all?
Meritocracy vs. mutuality
Part two: Popular parables
Chapter four: Just like us? Normcore plutocrats and the popularisation of elitism
Meritocracy and the extension of privilege
The 1%, the new rentiers and transnational asset-stripping
The kind parent
The new rich are different
Chapter five: #Damonsplaining and the unbearable whiteness of ‘merit’
#Damonsplaining and externalised white male privilege
The racialization of merit: people
The racialization of merit: products
The racialization of merit: production
Trying to shut women up
Calling out the myth of postracial meritocracy
Externalised and internalised neoliberal meritocracy
Chapter six: Desperate success: Managing the mumpreneur
Doing it all
The mumpreneur and the branded self
Disaggregation and alternatives
Conclusion: Beyond neoliberal meritocracy
Failing to convince
The journeys of meritocracy
What’s the alternative?
Changing the cultural pull of meritocratic hope
Alternatives to the ladder