In the United States, older populations exhibit the highest levels of economic inequality of all age groups. Across all advanced societies, the inequalities observed in older populations stem from structural and individual processes that differentiate the life courses of women and men and yield distinctive patterns of economic inequality in adulthood and old age.Age and Inequality examines the structural and individual bases of inequality and aging in the United States, especially in recent decades. The interplay of the employment system with public and private social insurance systems operates to structure the shapes of work careers and the patterns of exit from these careers in late adulthood and old age.Gender inequality across the life course is an important element of age inequality. Labor market structure, state policies, and life course factors such as fertility and the division of household labor systematically differentiate men's and women's work careers.Aging and retirement in the twenty-first century raise concerns regarding public welfare and market policies affecting labor exits and income support systems over the next half century. Angela O'Rand and John Henretta consider the implications of the changing workplace and changing public policies for women and men.