2nd Edition

Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures

By H. Lee Willis, Randall R. Schrieber Copyright 2013
    820 Pages 229 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    820 Pages 229 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Good aging infrastructure management consists of optimizing the choice of equipment and its refurbishment while also making compatible changes in all those operating and ownership policies, the whole combination aimed at optimizing the business results the power system owner desires. Both a reference and tutorial guide, this second edition of Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures provides updated coverage of aging power delivery systems, the problems they cause, and the technical and managerial approaches that power systems owners can take to manage them.

    See What’s New in the Second Edition:

    • All chapters have been updated or are completely new
    • Comprehensive discussions of all issues related to equipment aging
    • Business impact analysis and models and engineering business studies of actual utility cases
    • Strategy and policy issues and how to frame and customize them for specific situations

    This book looks at the basics of equipment aging and its system and business impacts on utilities. It covers various maintenance, service and retrofit methods available to mitigate age-related deterioration of equipment. It also presents numerous configuration and automation upgrades at the system level that can deal with higher portions of aging equipment in the system and still provide good service at a reasonable cost.

    Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures
    Introduction and Overview
    Aging Infrastructure Management Must Become A Mainstream Part of Utility Operations
    What is the Infrastructure Involved?
    Characteristics of an Aging Infrastructure
    Power Delivery Systems
    The Business Environment Has Changed
    Five Factors Contribute to Aging Infrastructure Problems
    Condition, Criticality, and Consequences
    Concluding Remarks

    Power Delivery Systems
    T&D System’s Mission
    The "Laws of T&D"
    Levels of the T&D System
    Utility Distribution Equipment
    T&D Costs
    Types of Delivery System Design
    Smart Grid

    Customer Demand for Power and Reliability of Service
    The Two-Qs: Quantity and Quality of Power
    Electric Consumer Need for Quantity of Power
    Electric Consumer Need for Quality of Power
    Two-Q Analyses: Quantity and Quality of Power Are Both Important Aspects of Consumer Value
    Conclusion and Summary

    Power System Reliability and Reliability of Service
    Outages Cause Interruptions
    Reliability Indices
    Reliability and Contingency Criteria for Planning
    Cost Is Usually the Major Consideration
    Two-Q Analysis of Power Systems
    Conclusion and Summary

    Cost and Economic Evaluation
    Time Value of Money
    Decision Bases and Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation
    Budget-Constrained Planning: Marginal Benefit versus Cost Analysis
    Asset Management and Pareto Analysis

    Equipment Inspection, Testing, and Diagnostics
    Inspection, Testing, and Diagnostic Evaluation
    Equipment Testing and Diagnosis Methods
    Tests and Diagnosis of Insulating Oil
    OnLine and Real-Time Monitoring and Testing
    Summary and Final Comments

    Aging Equipment and Its Impacts
    Equipment Aging
    Equipment Failure Rate Increases with Age
    Impact of Escalating Failure Rates
    Summary of Key Points

    Obsolete System Structures
    Obsolete Systems Layouts
    Impacts on the Sub-transmission – Substation Level
    Feeder System Impacts
    "Fixes" For Outdated System Structures
    Summary of Key Points

    Traditional Reliability Engineering Tools and Their Limitations
    Contingency-Based Planning Methods
    Limitations of N-1 Methodology
    Other Planning Related Concerns
    Summary and Conclusion

    Primary Distribution Planning and Engineering Interactions
    Distribution Planning and the Perceived Role of Distribution
    Flexibility and Effectiveness in Feeder Level Planning
    Smart Distribution Systems

    Equipment Condition Assessment
    What Does "Condition" Mean?
    Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction
    Power Transformers
    Switchgear and Circuit Breakers
    Underground Equipment and Cables
    Overhead Lines and Associated Equipment
    Service Transformers and Service Circuits
    Evaluating and Prioritizing Equipment Condition
    Condition Tracking
    Summary and Final Comments

    Prioritizing Inspection, Maintenance, and Service
    Reliability-Centered Maintenance
    Basic Reliability-Centered Prioritization
    Prioritization of the Type of Maintenance
    Practical Aspects for Implementation
    Extending Reliability-Centered Prioritization to Other Operations Functions
    Conclusion and Recommendations

    Planning Methods for Aging T&D Infrastructures
    Planning: Finding the Best Alternative
    Short- and Long-Range Planning
    The T&D Planning Process
    The Systems Approach
    Summary of Planning in an Aging T&D Infrastructure

    Planning Reliability of an Aging System
    Reliability Can Be Engineered
    Methods for Distribution System Reliability Assessment
    Application of Analytical Simulation for Detailed Reliability Assessment
    Use of a Hybrid Analytical Solution
    Conclusion and Key Points

    T&D Equipment Management Philosophies
    Four Philosophies of Ownership
    Comparing the Four Ownership Philosophies
    Organizational culture
    Six Different Companies: Six Different Philosophies
    Big States Electric – Asset Management
    Mid-State Electric Company – Reliability-Centered Maintenance
    International Bulk Petroleum Fluids – Buy, Burn, and Bash
    Big State University System – Standards Based
    Third-World Orphan Rescue Foundation: Uniquely Standards Based
    Huey Longwaites International Airport – Buy, Burn, & Bash
    Summary and Conclusion

    Case Study: Wood Distribution Pole Management
    An Inauspicious Beginning
    Overview of Approach
    The Data Chase
    Building the Historical Model of Pole Ownership
    Building the Predictive Model
    What the Model Says About the Future
    Projections of Pole-Related Costs and Performance
    Finding the Bad Poles in the Asset Base
    Pole Replacement Merit and Economics
    Options for Pole Replacement Programs
    CL&P’s Plan for Dealing with Aging Wooden Distribution Poles

    Guidelines and Recommendations
    Five Interrelated Factors
    Results-Driven Management (RDM)
    Steps to Mitigate Aging Infrastructure Effects
    The Aging Infrastructure Management Program Itself

    Notes on a Spreadsheet-Based Model for Aging Trends
    The Concept: Incrementing an Age Distribution
    Multi-Sheet Structure of a More Practical Model
    Fitting and Calibrating a Model
    Real World Data Situations: Getting a Solution
    Comments on Application

    Sustainable Point Analysis
    Elements of Aging Infrastructure Analysis
    Quantitative Examples
    Metrics for Measuring Aging Infrastructures
    Effect of Different Failure Rate Curve Shapes
    Reading Age Distributions
    Applying Economic Analysis
    Summary of Key Points


    H. Lee Willis, Randall R. Schrieber