Written by a globally prominent entomologist, Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management provides tools for developing integrated mite management programs for agriculture, including management of plant-feeding mites, mites attacking bees and livestock, and stored products. Emphasizing the biology, ecology, behavior, and diverse methods of controlling mites, this book provides an overview of the management of agriculturally important mites using all available Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tools, including biological control, cultural practices, host-plant resistance, and pesticides.
Agricultural Acarology prepares agricultural managers to identify, manage, and contribute to the field of integrated mite management. An accompanying CD-ROM contains numerous color photographs of mites and the damage they cause, and PDFs of key publications.
Table of Contents
Introduction to Acarology
General Introduction to Acarology
Selected Websites Relevant to Acarology
The Relationship of Mites to Other Arthropods
Characteristics of the Arthropoda
Higher Classification of Mites
Basic Structure and Function of Mites
Feeding and Food Types
The Nervous and Sensory Systems
The Circulatory System
Genetics and Sex Determination
Collection, Identification and Culturing of Mites
Collecting Plant-Feeding or Predatory Mites
Monitoring Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks
Identification of Mites
Additional Acarological Information
Integrated Mite Management Strategy and Tactics
The Strategy of Integrated Mite Management
Classical, Augmentative, and Conservation Biological Control
Sampling and Monitoring Methods
Crop Pest Control Consultants and Integrated Pest Management
Pest Mites and Their Natural Enemies on Plants
Tetranychidae: Premier Plant Pests
Role of Silk
Selected Species of Plant Pests by Genus
Tetranychidae and Plant Diseases
Tetranychidae as Weed Control Agents
Host-Plant Resistance to Tetranychidae
Resistance to Host-Plant Resistance
Pesticide Resistance in Tetranychids
Biology of the Plant-Feeding Tarsonemidae
Steneotarsonemus (or Phytonemus) pallidus
Polyphagotarsonemus (or Hemitarsonemus) latus
Other Pest Species of Tarsonemids
The Eriophyoidea: The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown
Vectors of Disease: Definitely Undesirable
Selected Eriophyoid Pests
Collecting and Sampling Eriophyoids
Eriophyoids as Alternative Prey: Potentially Good.
Invasive Eriophyoid Species: Clearly Bad
Biological Control of Weeds by Eriophyoid Mites: Potentially Good
Identification of Eriophyoids
Control of Eriophyoids
The Tenuipalpidae (Flat or False Spider Mites) as Pests
Some Tenuipalpid Pests Around the World.
Transmission of Plant Diseases
Control of Tenuipalpids
Systematics and Distribution
Red-Legged Earth Mite (RLEM)
Blue Oat Mite (Penthaleus species)
Friends or Foes?
The Anystidae: Friends of Limited Value.
The Hypoaspidae: Friends, Especially for Augmentative Releases.
The Tuckerellidae: Potential Pests Rarely Found Except in Tropical and Subtropical Climates
The Tydeidae: Mostly Friends as Predators, Alternative Prey, and Sanitizing Agents
The Acaridae: Usually Foes but Occasionally Beneficial?
The Hemisarcoptidae: Friends Requiring More Study
The Stigmaeidae: Friends, Especially in Unsprayed Orchards and Vineyards.
The Oribatida (Cryptostigmata): Usually Beneficial in the Soil but May Cause Crop Root Damage and Contaminate Foods
The Phytoseiidae: Effective Natural Enemies
Phytoseiids in Augmentative Biological Control Programs
Life-Table Analyses of Phytoseiids
Plant-Emitted Volatiles and Biological Control.
Pesticide Resistances in Phytoseiids
Genetic Improvement of Phytoseiids
Rearing Methods for Spider Mites and Phytoseiids
Predatory Insects and Plant-Feeding Mites
Insects as Predators of Plant-Feeding Mites: Pros and Cons
Family Coccinellidae (Order Coleoptera): Stethorus Are Mite Specialists
Family Staphylinidae (Order Coleoptera): Oligota Species May Be Useful Predators of Spider Mites
Order Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae, Asolothripidae, Thripidae): Thrips May Be Generalists or Specialists (Six-Spotted Thrips)
Heteroptera (Hemiptera: True Bugs): Generalist
Predators of Small Arthropods, Including Mites.
Cecidomyiidae (Order Diptera): Feltiella Species Can Be Effective Predators of Spider Mites
Order Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, Coniopterigidae, Hemerobiidae): Generalist Predators That May Sometimes Feed on Mites
Ants as Predators of T. urticae
Spiders as Predators of Mites and Ticks: Less Well Studied
Pathogens and Symbionts of Mites and Ticks
Microbial Symbionts and Pathogens
Viruses of Mites and Ticks
Commercialization of Microbial Pesticides.
Exemplars of Integrated Mite Management Programs for Plant-Feeding Mites
Classical Biological Control of the Cassava Green Mite in Africa
Steps in a Classical Biological Control Program
Cassava Green Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa.
Control Measures Attempted
Risk Evaluation for Classical Biological Control
Why Not Use African Phytoseiids as Natural Enemies?
Program Costs and Benefits
Integrated Mite Management in Washington Apple Orchards
The Apple Ecosystem.
Mites on Apples
IMM from the 1960s to the Early 1990s
Problems with IMM in the 1990s
Current and Future Changes to IMM in Washington Apple Orchards.
Integrated Mite Management in California Almonds
Almonds in California
Pest Mites in California Almond Orchards.
Research on Control Tactics
Combined Tactics of the IMM Program
Updated Almond Pest Management Program
Integrated Mite Management in Citrus in Florida and California
Citrus Production in Florida and California
Diversity in California Climates and Mite Species.
Managing Mites in Florida Citrus Groves
Managing Mites on Ornamental Plants
Types of Ornamental Plants.
Tactics for Managing Pests of Ornamentals
Mites on Ornamental Plants
Predatory Mite Release Methods in Greenhouses
The Future of Pest Management in Greenhouse Ornamentals
Soil Mites and Agriculture
Pest Mites of Honey Bees
Biology and Taxonomy
Monitoring for Varroa
Control of Varroa
Integrated Varroa Management.
Tracheal Mite (Acarapis woodi)
Integrated Control of Acarapis woodi
Parasitic Mites of Mammals and Birds
Ticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae)
Ticks as Pests
Biology of the Ixodidae
Genera of the Ixodidae
Biology of the Argasidae
Pest Management of Ticks
Pest Mites of Farm and Companion Animals
Poultry Red Mite or Roost Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae)
European or Northern Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae).
Tropical Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus bursa (Macronyssidae)
Chiggers (Actinedida: Trombiculidae)
Follicle Mites, Demodex (Actinedida: Demodicidae).
Straw- or Hay-Itch Mites, Pyemotes (Actinedida: Pyemotidae)
Fur Mites, Cheyletiella (Actinedida: Cheyletiellidae)
Acaridid Mites as Parasites or Scavengers
Endoparasites of Livestock
Pest Mites of Stored Products and Households
Post-Harvest Pest Mites
Acarine Pests of Stored Foods
Control of Mites in Stored Grains and Other Foods
Stored Bulb Mites and Their Control
Dust Mites (Pyroglyphidae)
The Importance of Dust Mites
Species of Dust Mites.
Biology of Dust Mites
Integrated Management of Dust Mites and Their Allergens
Some General Conclusions About Integrated Mite Management
Marjorie A. Hoy, Ph.D., received her B.A. degree in zoology and entomology at the University of Kansas at Lawrence, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in entomology at the University of California at Berkeley, where she specialized in acarology, biological control, insect ecology, genetics, and evolution. In 1992, she took a position as Eminent Scholar of Biological Control at the University of Florida, Gainesville, where she has conducted classical biological control of citrus pests and of red palm mite. She has published over 350 scientific papers and book chapters and written two editions of Insect Molecular Genetics. Currently, she teaches a course in agricultural acarology to students in entomology and the Doctor of Plant Medicine program at the University of Florida.
Featured Author Profiles
Although mites and ticks are significant as plant and animal pests, vectors of human diseases, and biological control agents, most economic entomologists and pest managers have rather superficial knowledge of their basic structure, function and identification, and their similarities to and differences from the insects. Hoy’s book represents a major contribution to acarology and Integrated Pest Management by one of the preeminent contemporary authorities in both areas.
"Hoy’s Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management is a welcome addition to these classic works, updating many aspects of the earlier texts, particularly as they relate to management, while establishing the comprehensive background necessary to develop and implement an IMM approach. This book would be an excellent basis for a course in agricultural acarology, or a supplementary reference for a course in arthropod pest management."
—Frank G. Zalom, Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(1):295-296., 2012.
"As fewer courses in acarology are being taught in universities and fewer taxonomists are available to assist in mite identification, Hoy (University of Florida-Gainesville) provides pest-control workers and students with tools to manage mite pests in agriculture. Her emphasis is integrated pest management rather than a chemical-based approach, and pays a lot of attention to knowing the biology, ecology, and behavior of pest and beneficial mites well enough to implement biological controls in most or all situations. After introducing macrology and integrated mite management, she looks at pest mites and their natural enemies on plants, exemplars of integrated management programs for plant-feeding mites, soil mites, pest mites of honey bees, parasitic mites of mammals and birds, and pest mites of stored products and households."
—Book News, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2011
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