1st Edition

Agricultural Acarology Introduction to Integrated Mite Management

By Marjorie A. Hoy Copyright 2011
    430 Pages 128 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Written by a globally prominent entomologist, Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management provides tools for developing integrated mite management programs for agriculture, including management of plant-feeding mites, mites attacking bees and livestock, and stored products. Emphasizing the biology, ecology, behavior, and diverse methods of controlling mites, this book provides an overview of the management of agriculturally important mites using all available Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tools, including biological control, cultural practices, host-plant resistance, and pesticides.

    Agricultural Acarology prepares agricultural managers to identify, manage, and contribute to the field of integrated mite management. An accompanying downloadable resource contains numerous color photographs of mites and the damage they cause, and PDFs of key publications.

    Introduction to Acarology
    General Introduction to Acarology
    Selected References
    Selected Websites Relevant to Acarology
    The Relationship of Mites to Other Arthropods
    Characteristics of the Arthropoda
    Higher Classification of Mites
    Selected References
    Basic Structure and Function of Mites
    Feeding and Food Types
    Water Balance
    Muscle System
    The Nervous and Sensory Systems
    The Circulatory System
    Genetics and Sex Determination
    Selected References
    Collection, Identification and Culturing of Mites
    Collection Goals
    Collecting Plant-Feeding or Predatory Mites
    Monitoring Vertebrates for Parasitic Mites and Ticks
    Identification of Mites
    Culturing Mites
    Additional Acarological Information
    Selected References

    Integrated Mite Management Strategy and Tactics
    The Strategy of Integrated Mite Management
    Historical Overview
    Classical, Augmentative, and Conservation Biological Control
    Cultural Controls
    Genetic Control
    Chemical Control
    Pesticide Resistance
    Host-Plant Resistance
    Sampling and Monitoring Methods
    Crop Pest Control Consultants and Integrated Pest Management
    Selected References

    Pest Mites and Their Natural Enemies on Plants
    Tetranychidae: Premier Plant Pests
    Role of Silk
    Population Dynamics
    Tetranychid Anatomy
    Selected Species of Plant Pests by Genus
    Tetranychidae and Plant Diseases
    Tetranychidae as Weed Control Agents
    Host-Plant Resistance to Tetranychidae
    Resistance to Host-Plant Resistance
    Pesticide Resistance in Tetranychids
    Selected References
    The Tarsonemidae
    Biology of the Plant-Feeding Tarsonemidae
    Steneotarsonemus (or Phytonemus) pallidus
    Polyphagotarsonemus (or Hemitarsonemus) latus
    Other Pest Species of Tarsonemids
    Selected References
    The Eriophyoidea: The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown
    Basic Biology
    Vectors of Disease: Definitely Undesirable
    Selected Eriophyoid Pests
    Collecting and Sampling Eriophyoids
    Eriophyoids as Alternative Prey: Potentially Good.
    Invasive Eriophyoid Species: Clearly Bad
    Biological Control of Weeds by Eriophyoid Mites: Potentially Good
    Identification of Eriophyoids
    Control of Eriophyoids
    Selected References
    The Tenuipalpidae (Flat or False Spider Mites) as Pests
    Some Tenuipalpid Pests Around the World.
    Transmission of Plant Diseases
    Control of Tenuipalpids
    Selected References
    The Penthaleidae
    Systematics and Distribution
    Red-Legged Earth Mite (RLEM)
    Blue Oat Mite (Penthaleus species)
    Selected References
    Friends or Foes?
    The Anystidae: Friends of Limited Value.
    The Hypoaspidae: Friends, Especially for Augmentative Releases.
    The Tuckerellidae: Potential Pests Rarely Found Except in Tropical and Subtropical Climates
    The Tydeidae: Mostly Friends as Predators, Alternative Prey, and Sanitizing Agents
    The Acaridae: Usually Foes but Occasionally Beneficial?
    The Hemisarcoptidae: Friends Requiring More Study
    The Stigmaeidae: Friends, Especially in Unsprayed Orchards and Vineyards.
    The Oribatida (Cryptostigmata): Usually Beneficial in the Soil but May Cause Crop Root Damage and Contaminate Foods
    Selected References
    The Phytoseiidae: Effective Natural Enemies
    General Biology
    Phytoseiid Systematics
    Phytoseiids in Augmentative Biological Control Programs
    Life-Table Analyses of Phytoseiids
    Prey-Location Behavior
    Plant-Emitted Volatiles and Biological Control.
    Pesticide Resistances in Phytoseiids
    Genetic Improvement of Phytoseiids
    Rearing Methods for Spider Mites and Phytoseiids
    Selected References
    Predatory Insects and Plant-Feeding Mites
    Insects as Predators of Plant-Feeding Mites: Pros and Cons
    Family Coccinellidae (Order Coleoptera): Stethorus Are Mite Specialists
    Family Staphylinidae (Order Coleoptera): Oligota Species May Be Useful Predators of Spider Mites
    Order Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae, Asolothripidae, Thripidae): Thrips May Be Generalists or Specialists (Six-Spotted Thrips)
    Heteroptera (Hemiptera: True Bugs): Generalist
    Predators of Small Arthropods, Including Mites.
    Cecidomyiidae (Order Diptera): Feltiella Species Can Be Effective Predators of Spider Mites
    Order Neuroptera (Chrysopidae, Coniopterigidae, Hemerobiidae): Generalist Predators That May Sometimes Feed on Mites
    Ants as Predators of T. urticae
    Spiders as Predators of Mites and Ticks: Less Well Studied
    Selected References
    Pathogens and Symbionts of Mites and Ticks
    Microbial Symbionts and Pathogens
    Viruses of Mites and Ticks
    Fungal Pathogens
    Microsporidial Pathogens.
    Commercialization of Microbial Pesticides.
    Selected References

    Exemplars of Integrated Mite Management Programs for Plant-Feeding Mites
    Classical Biological Control of the Cassava Green Mite in Africa
    Steps in a Classical Biological Control Program
    Cassava Green Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa.
    Control Measures Attempted
    Risk Evaluation for Classical Biological Control
    Taxonomic Problems
    Why Not Use African Phytoseiids as Natural Enemies?
    Program Costs and Benefits
    Selected References
    Integrated Mite Management in Washington Apple Orchards
    The Apple Ecosystem.
    Mites on Apples
    IMM from the 1960s to the Early 1990s
    Problems with IMM in the 1990s
    Current and Future Changes to IMM in Washington Apple Orchards.
    Selected References
    Integrated Mite Management in California Almonds
    Almonds in California
    Pest Mites in California Almond Orchards.
    Research on Control Tactics
    Combined Tactics of the IMM Program
    Updated Almond Pest Management Program
    Selected References
    Integrated Mite Management in Citrus in Florida and California
    Citrus Production in Florida and California
    Diversity in California Climates and Mite Species.
    Managing Mites in Florida Citrus Groves
    Research Needs
    Selected References
    Managing Mites on Ornamental Plants
    Types of Ornamental Plants.
    Tactics for Managing Pests of Ornamentals
    Mites on Ornamental Plants
    Predatory Mite Release Methods in Greenhouses
    The Future of Pest Management in Greenhouse Ornamentals
    Selected References

    Soil Mites and Agriculture

    Pest Mites of Honey Bees
    Varroa jacobsoni
    Biology and Taxonomy
    Monitoring for Varroa
    Control of Varroa
    Integrated Varroa Management.
    Selected References
    Tracheal Mite (Acarapis woodi)
    Integrated Control of Acarapis woodi
    Selected References

    Parasitic Mites of Mammals and Birds
    Ticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae)
    Ticks as Pests
    Biology of the Ixodidae
    Genera of the Ixodidae
    Biology of the Argasidae
    Pest Management of Ticks
    Selected References

    Pest Mites of Farm and Companion Animals
    Poultry Red Mite or Roost Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae)
    European or Northern Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae).
    Tropical Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus bursa (Macronyssidae)
    Chiggers (Actinedida: Trombiculidae)
    Follicle Mites, Demodex (Actinedida: Demodicidae).
    Straw- or Hay-Itch Mites, Pyemotes (Actinedida: Pyemotidae)
    Fur Mites, Cheyletiella (Actinedida: Cheyletiellidae)
    Acaridid Mites as Parasites or Scavengers
    Endoparasites of Livestock
    Selected References

    Pest Mites of Stored Products and Households
    Post-Harvest Pest Mites

    Acarine Pests of Stored Foods
    Control of Mites in Stored Grains and Other Foods
    Stored Bulb Mites and Their Control
    Selected References
    Dust Mites (Pyroglyphidae)
    The Importance of Dust Mites
    Species of Dust Mites.
    Biology of Dust Mites
    Integrated Management of Dust Mites and Their Allergens
    Selected References

    Some General Conclusions About Integrated Mite Management


    Marjorie A. Hoy, Ph.D., received her B.A. degree in zoology and entomology at the University of Kansas at Lawrence, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in entomology at the University of California at Berkeley, where she specialized in acarology, biological control, insect ecology, genetics, and evolution. In 1992, she took a position as Eminent Scholar of Biological Control at the University of Florida, Gainesville, where she has conducted classical biological control of citrus pests and of red palm mite. She has published over 350 scientific papers and book chapters and written two editions of Insect Molecular Genetics. Currently, she teaches a course in agricultural acarology to students in entomology and the Doctor of Plant Medicine program at the University of Florida.

    Although mites and ticks are significant as plant and animal pests, vectors of human diseases, and biological control agents, most economic entomologists and pest managers have rather superficial knowledge of their basic structure, function and identification, and their similarities to and differences from the insects. Hoy’s book represents a major contribution to acarology and Integrated Pest Management by one of the preeminent contemporary authorities in both areas.

    "Hoy’s Agricultural Acarology: Introduction to Integrated Mite Management is a welcome addition to these classic works, updating many aspects of the earlier texts, particularly as they relate to management, while establishing the comprehensive background necessary to develop and implement an IMM approach. This book would be an excellent basis for a course in agricultural acarology, or a supplementary reference for a course in arthropod pest management."
    —Frank G. Zalom, Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(1):295-296., 2012.

    "As fewer courses in acarology are being taught in universities and fewer taxonomists are available to assist in mite identification, Hoy (University of Florida-Gainesville) provides pest-control workers and students with tools to manage mite pests in agriculture. Her emphasis is integrated pest management rather than a chemical-based approach, and pays a lot of attention to knowing the biology, ecology, and behavior of pest and beneficial mites well enough to implement biological controls in most or all situations. After introducing macrology and integrated mite management, she looks at pest mites and their natural enemies on plants, exemplars of integrated management programs for plant-feeding mites, soil mites, pest mites of honey bees, parasitic mites of mammals and birds, and pest mites of stored products and households."
    —Book News, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2011