India’s northeastern region, forged by a unique geological history and peopled by several waves of migration, is extraordinarily complex. Farming systems in the hills and the riverine plains are embedded in a heterogeneous environment, comprising forests, wetlands and fields, shaped over centuries by nature and people. Today, the environment and economy are undergoing rapid transformation, affecting peoples’ lives, livelihoods and methods of food production.
The essays in this volume bring a multi-disciplinary perspective to critical aspects of the process of agricultural change, examine the gender dimensions of agriculture, and explore initiatives for sustainable livelihood and ecological conservation. Part I analyses the impact of policies and people’s own aspirations on the closely-intertwined ecology and economy of the region. Part II discusses the gender dynamics of farming, forestry and biodiversity in a socio-cultural context where women are primarily responsible for food production. Part III highlights some alternative farming interventions and community-based efforts for environmental conservation, sustainable resource management and improved livelihoods.
This book will be useful to scholars and students of agriculture, economics, development, environment and gender studies, and to those involved in policy analysis, natural resource management and community organisation, as also general readers interested in India’s northeastern region.
Table of Contents
List of Tables. List of Figures. Preface. Introduction Sumi Krishna Part I. Aspects of a Changing Environment. 1. Floods and fields in the Brahmaputra valley: Twentieth-century changes in historical perspective Ritupan Goswami 2. Relation of the traditional economic system and ecology: The case of a Naga community Late U. A. Shimray 3. Why do jhumiyas jhum? Managing change in shifting cultivation areas in the uplands of northeastern India Dhrupad Choudhury 4. A dying lake: Food security versus 'development' — Loktak, Manipur Thingnam Anjulika Samom 5. Land, environmental degradation and conflicts in northeastern India Walter Fernandes. Part II. Gender Dimensions of Farming. 6. Livelihood diversification: Farming, forest-use and gender in northeastern India Deepak K. Mishra 7. Gender dynamics in agro-biodiversity conservation in Sikkim and Nagaland Chanda Gurung Goodrich 8. Gender, food security and rice farming in Tripura Vincent Darlong, D. K. Hore and S. Deb Barma 9. Mizoram’s rice economy and gender relations Audrey Ladinpuii and Laithangpuii 10. Gender ideologies and the ‘price’ of rice in northeastern India Sumi Krishna. Part III. Search for Alternatives. 11. Integrated rubber farming and livelihood systems in northeastern India P. K. Viswanathan 12. Organic farming in the northeastern hill regions Nilabja Ghosh 13A. The potential of horticultural interventions for livelihood enhancement and biodiversity conservation in Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Sumi Krishna 1
Sumi Krishna is an independent environment-development scholar and writer based in Bangalore, India and was the President of the Indian Association for Women's Studies (2005–8).