Air Quality and Livestock Farming: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Air Quality and Livestock Farming

1st Edition

Edited by Thomas Banhazi, Andres Aland, Jörg Hartung

CRC Press

372 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781138027039
pub: 2018-06-07
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315738338
pub: 2018-06-13
from $62.48

FREE Standard Shipping!


Air quality has a direct influence on health, welfare and production performance of livestock as the high concentrations of noxious gases, dust and airborne microorganisms are likely to reduce production efficiency and the general welfare of farm animals. Long term exposure to particulates in livestock buildings might also affect the respiratory health of farm workers. Dust in animal buildings contains many biologically active substances such as bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and residues of antibiotics (as a result of veterinary treatments) that are suspected to be hazardous to human health. Furthermore, air pollutants emitted from livestock buildings can reduce air, water and soil quality and can potentially undermine the health of nearby residents. Airborne emissions include ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, particulates like dust and microorganisms. In addition, other potentially harmful substances such as heavy metals, antibiotic residues and components of disinfectants might be also emitted from livestock building that are potentially damaging to ecosystems.

In this book, key aspects of agricultural air quality, such as monitoring, managing and reducing airborne pollutants in and around livestock facilities are reviewed.


  • addressing the raising awareness of the importance of optimal health and welfare for lifestock species
  • with contributions from international specialists and researchers
  • providing up-to-date information for professionals involved in modern animal producti
  • This book will be useful for farming professionals, academics, students, policy makers, business leaders, regulatory bodies and agricultural consultants.

    Table of Contents

    Section I: Characteristics and sources of different airborne pollutants

    1. Airborne dust in livestock buildings

    Steven J. Hoff

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Particulate sources and fractional characteristics

    1.3 Indoor particulate matter concentrations

    1.4 Summary of comprehensive animal and poultry housing PM studies

    1.5 Conclusion

    2. Lagoon characteristics and ambient hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a swine feeding facility

    Albert J. Heber

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Literature review

    2.3 Methodology

    2.4 Results and discussion

    2.5 Summary and conclusions

    3. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in swine production

    Ji-Qin Ni, Albert J. Heber and Teng-Teeh Lim

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Ammonia in swine production

    3.3 Hydrogen sulfide in swine production

    3.4 Discussion and conclusions

    4. Pollutants in livestock buildings: Ammonia and dust interplay with the respiratory tract

    Annamaria Costa and Cinzia Domeneghini

    4.1 Ammonia in piggeries: concentrations and effects on animal’s health and performance

    4.2 Particulate matter: origin, classification, deposition in the respiratory system and effects on animal health and production

    4.3 Concept of secondary particulate matter: from gases to PM formation

    Section II: Measurement issues

    5. Gaseous emissions of bedded pack barns with wood chips and compost as bedding material

    Hendrik Jan van Dooren, Francis Sanderink, Annemieke Hol and Paul Galama

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Materials and methods

    5.3 Results

    5.4 Discussion

    5.5 Conclusions

    6. Seasonal variability of the PM and ammonia concentrations in uninsulated loose-housing cowshed

    Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Allan Kaasik and Veljo Kimmel

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Materials and methods

    6.3 Results and discussion

    6.4 Conclusions

    7. Air quality and factors related to sub-optimal pig housing conditions in nursery and finishing rooms: A field study in 143 French herds

    Christelle Fablet, Fabrice Bidan, Virginie Dorenlor, Florent Eono, Eric Eveno, Nicolas Rose and François Madec

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Material and methods

    7.3 Results

    7.4 Discussion

    7.5 Conclusions

    Section III: Pollutant levels encountered in livestock buildings

    8. Temperature, relative humidity, noise, dust and odor levels recorded on free-range piggery sites in three states of Australia

    Thomas Banhazi

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Materials and methods

    8.3 Results and discussion

    8.4 Conclusions 136

    9. Airborne pollutant concentrations within and emission rates from Australian piggery buildings

    Thomas Banhazi

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Material and methods

    9.3 Results

    9.4 Discussion

    9.5 Conclusions

    10. Microclimate and air quality in uninsulated loose-housing cowsheds in temperate climate conditions

    Allan Kaasik and Marek Maasikmets

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Materials and methods

    10.3 Results and discussion

    10.4 Conclusions

    Section IV: Effects of sub-optimal air quality on workers, animals and the environment

    11. Intensive livestock housing: a review: Preventing occupational respiratory hazards for workers

    Kelley J. Donham

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Which hazardous dusts and gases are found in ILHs?

    11.3 Who is exposed to these dusts and gases, and when?

    11.4 How commonly does excessive exposure occur?

    11.5 Respiratory effects of inhaling ILH dusts and gases

    11.6 Diagnosis

    11.7 Treatment

    12. The effect of air quality in livestock buildings on the occupational health of farm workers

    Thomas Banhazi and Dino Pisaniello

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Materials and methods

    12.3 Results

    12.4 Discussion

    12.5 Recommendations 180

    13 Dust dispersion modeling of fugitive emissions from piggeries

    Thomas Banhazi

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Methodology

    13.3 Results and discussion

    13.4 Conclusions

    14 The effects of atmospheric ammonia during export of livestock

    Yu Zhang and Clive J.C. Phillips

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Source of atmospheric ammonia during live export

    14.3 Atmospheric ammonia levels during live export

    14.4 Effects of ammonia on livestock during live export

    14.5 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for humans

    14.6 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for animals

    14.7 Conclusions

    15 Hygiene and cleanliness in pig buildings as preventive medicine to ensure healthier animals

    Christelle Fablet

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Influence of hygiene and cleanliness on pig health

    15.3 Hygiene to ensure food safety and quality

    15.4 Hygiene, health and air quality in buildings

    15.5 Current means to attain hygiene in pig production and the need to implement better hygiene

    15.6 Cleaning and disinfection procedures in pig buildings

    15.7 Conclusions

    Section V: Reduction methods Controlling internal concentrations and emissions from the animal buildings

    16 Controlling the internal concentrations of gases and odor within and emissions from animal buildings

    Jens Seedorf

    16.1 A general view on airborne pollutants – an introduction

    16.2 A brief description of relevant gases and odor

    16.3 Control and reduction measures

    16.4 Final remarks

    17 Controlling the internal concentrations of particulate matter within and emissions from animal buildings

    Jens Seedorf

    17.1 The characteristics of airborne particles at a glance

    17.2 Control and reduction measures

    17.3 Final remarks

    18 Emission reduction from livestock buildings using a filtration device

    Thomas Banhazi

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Materials and methods

    18.3 Results and discussion

    18.4 Conclusions

    19 Effect of electrostatic precipitation on particulate matter emissions from a high-rise layer house

    Teng-Teeh Lim, Chaoyuan Wang, Albert J. Heber, Ji-Qin Ni and Lingying Zhao

    19.1 Introduction and objective

    19.2 Methods and procedures

    19.3 Experimental design

    19.4 Results and discussion

    19.5 Conclusions

    Section VI: Reduction methods and technologies for controlling airborne pollutants

    20 Oil-spraying technologies to be used for dust reduction in livestock buildings

    Hisamitsu Takai and Thomas Banhazi

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Fundamentals for designing oil-spraying for dust control

    20.3 Strategy of the oil-spraying operation

    20.4 Different types of oil-spraying systems

    20.5 Review of studies reported previously

    20.6 Recommendations for future studies

    21 Housing index development for a holistic air quality evaluation: A preliminary framework

    Jens Seedorf

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 The concepts of air quality indices

    21.3 Conclusions

    22 Computer-based management of air quality data: Development of a software system

    Thomas Banhazi

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 General description of the software

    22.3 Description of the main functionalities of the BASE-Q software

    22.4 Description of the main functionalities of the Pocket BASE-Q program

    22.5 Conclusion

    About the Editors

    Associate Professor Thomas Banhazi is currently a Lecturer and Principal Scientist at University of Southern Queensland (USQ) responsible for the delivery of a number of agriculture related courses in addition to supervising a large number of post-graduate students. Associate Professor Banhazi has published in excess of 200 book chapters, journal and international conference papers and has been involved in approximately 40 research projects both in Europe and Australia funded by various government agencies and farmer organisations. He has successfully patented a number of innovative technologies in the US, Australia and Europe and actively engaged in the commercialisation of the patented inventions via his commercialisation companies. His expertise is mainly related to Precision Livestock Farming applications and environmental assessment methods. However, his research interests also include thermal and aerial environment of livestock buildings, the effect of airborne pollutants on the health of animals and workers, emission abatement and livestock waste management technologies.

    Associate professor Andres Aland is a Lecturer in Animal Health that involves both teaching and scientific activities at the Chair of Veterinary Bio- and Population Medicine at the Estonian University of Life Sciences. He has supervised a number of post-graduate students and published a large number of journal articles, conference papers and book chapters, including two textbooks published by the Wageningen Academic Publishers. Associate professor Aland has been involved in approximately 10 large research projects both in Estonia and Europe, funded by various governmental or European agencies. His expertise is mainly related to the areas of animal welfare and herd health monitoring in different production systems; environmental risks in production animal housing and preventive veterinary medicine. He is the Vice President of the International Society for Animal Hygiene and he is a member of numerous academic bodies nationally and internationally. Associate professor Aland has been the recipient of several national awards for his work as researcher, lecturer and post-graduate supervisor.

    Jörg Hartung (Dr. med. vet., Dr. med. vet. habil, Dr. h. c.) is veterinarian and Professor of Animal Hygiene, Husbandry and Welfare Science. He has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences for his scientific research on animal health/welfare and the effects of air pollutants on animals, humans and the environment. He was the Director of the Institute for Animal Hygiene, Welfare and Livestock Behaviour of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany for 20 years and served for 2 years as group leader at the Silsoe Research Institute, UK. His experience covers more than 35 years teaching and research in veterinary medicine and animal production on wide ranging topics such as (1) animal hygiene (2) animal welfare and health, (3) environmental protection and (4) occupational health aspects of farming. He is the President of the International Society for Animal Hygiene, chairman of the Committee for Animal Welfare in the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Germany, member of the Committee "Impact of Air Pollutants on Farm Animals" in German Engineers Association and member of the working group "Biological Risks at Workplace Agriculture", Germany. Currently he is an Emeritus Professor and since 2014 guest-Professor at University Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil.

    About the Series

    Sustainable Energy Developments

    ISSN 2164-0645

    Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
    The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

    Editorial Board
    Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
    University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
    Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
    Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
    Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
    Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
    Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

    FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

    Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

    Learn more…

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    MEDICAL / Veterinary Medicine / Food Animal
    NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General