1st Edition

Air Quality and Livestock Farming

Edited By Thomas Banhazi, Andres Aland, Jörg Hartung Copyright 2018

    Air quality has a direct influence on health, welfare and production performance of livestock as the high concentrations of noxious gases, dust and airborne microorganisms are likely to reduce production efficiency and the general welfare of farm animals. Long term exposure to particulates in livestock buildings might also affect the respiratory health of farm workers. Dust in animal buildings contains many biologically active substances such as bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and residues of antibiotics (as a result of veterinary treatments) that are suspected to be hazardous to human health. Furthermore, air pollutants emitted from livestock buildings can reduce air, water and soil quality and can potentially undermine the health of nearby residents. Airborne emissions include ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, particulates like dust and microorganisms. In addition, other potentially harmful substances such as heavy metals, antibiotic residues and components of disinfectants might be also emitted from livestock building that are potentially damaging to ecosystems.
    In this book, key aspects of agricultural air quality, such as monitoring, managing and reducing airborne pollutants in and around livestock facilities are reviewed.


  • addressing the raising awareness of the importance of optimal health and welfare for lifestock species
  • with contributions from international specialists and researchers
  • providing up-to-date information for professionals involved in modern animal producti
  • This book will be useful for farming professionals, academics, students, policy makers, business leaders, regulatory bodies and agricultural consultants.

    Section I: Characteristics and sources of different airborne pollutants

    1. Airborne dust in livestock buildings
    Steven J. Hoff
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Particulate sources and fractional characteristics
    1.3 Indoor particulate matter concentrations
    1.4 Summary of comprehensive animal and poultry housing PM studies
    1.5 Conclusion

    2. Lagoon characteristics and ambient hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a swine feeding facility
    Albert J. Heber
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Literature review
    2.3 Methodology
    2.4 Results and discussion
    2.5 Summary and conclusions

    3. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in swine production
    Ji-Qin Ni, Albert J. Heber and Teng-Teeh Lim
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Ammonia in swine production
    3.3 Hydrogen sulfide in swine production
    3.4 Discussion and conclusions

    4. Pollutants in livestock buildings: Ammonia and dust interplay with the respiratory tract
    Annamaria Costa and Cinzia Domeneghini
    4.1 Ammonia in piggeries: concentrations and effects on animal’s health and performance
    4.2 Particulate matter: origin, classification, deposition in the respiratory system and effects on animal health and production
    4.3 Concept of secondary particulate matter: from gases to PM formation

    Section II: Measurement issues

    5. Gaseous emissions of bedded pack barns with wood chips and compost as bedding material
    Hendrik Jan van Dooren, Francis Sanderink, Annemieke Hol and Paul Galama
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Materials and methods
    5.3 Results
    5.4 Discussion
    5.5 Conclusions

    6. Seasonal variability of the PM and ammonia concentrations in uninsulated loose-housing cowshed
    Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Allan Kaasik and Veljo Kimmel
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Materials and methods
    6.3 Results and discussion
    6.4 Conclusions

    7. Air quality and factors related to sub-optimal pig housing conditions in nursery and finishing rooms: A field study in 143 French herds
    Christelle Fablet, Fabrice Bidan, Virginie Dorenlor, Florent Eono, Eric Eveno, Nicolas Rose and François Madec
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Material and methods
    7.3 Results
    7.4 Discussion
    7.5 Conclusions

    Section III: Pollutant levels encountered in livestock buildings

    8. Temperature, relative humidity, noise, dust and odor levels recorded on free-range piggery sites in three states of Australia
    Thomas Banhazi
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Materials and methods
    8.3 Results and discussion
    8.4 Conclusions 136

    9. Airborne pollutant concentrations within and emission rates from Australian piggery buildings
    Thomas Banhazi
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Material and methods
    9.3 Results
    9.4 Discussion
    9.5 Conclusions

    10. Microclimate and air quality in uninsulated loose-housing cowsheds in temperate climate conditions
    Allan Kaasik and Marek Maasikmets
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Materials and methods
    10.3 Results and discussion
    10.4 Conclusions

    Section IV: Effects of sub-optimal air quality on workers, animals and the environment

    11. Intensive livestock housing: a review: Preventing occupational respiratory hazards for workers
    Kelley J. Donham
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Which hazardous dusts and gases are found in ILHs?
    11.3 Who is exposed to these dusts and gases, and when?
    11.4 How commonly does excessive exposure occur?
    11.5 Respiratory effects of inhaling ILH dusts and gases
    11.6 Diagnosis
    11.7 Treatment

    12. The effect of air quality in livestock buildings on the occupational health of farm workers
    Thomas Banhazi and Dino Pisaniello
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Materials and methods
    12.3 Results
    12.4 Discussion
    12.5 Recommendations 180

    13 Dust dispersion modeling of fugitive emissions from piggeries
    Thomas Banhazi
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Methodology
    13.3 Results and discussion
    13.4 Conclusions

    14 The effects of atmospheric ammonia during export of livestock
    Yu Zhang and Clive J.C. Phillips
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Source of atmospheric ammonia during live export
    14.3 Atmospheric ammonia levels during live export
    14.4 Effects of ammonia on livestock during live export
    14.5 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for humans
    14.6 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for animals
    14.7 Conclusions

    15 Hygiene and cleanliness in pig buildings as preventive medicine to ensure healthier animals
    Christelle Fablet
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Influence of hygiene and cleanliness on pig health
    15.3 Hygiene to ensure food safety and quality
    15.4 Hygiene, health and air quality in buildings
    15.5 Current means to attain hygiene in pig production and the need to implement better hygiene
    15.6 Cleaning and disinfection procedures in pig buildings
    15.7 Conclusions

    Section V: Reduction methods Controlling internal concentrations and emissions from the animal buildings

    16 Controlling the internal concentrations of gases and odor within and emissions from animal buildings
    Jens Seedorf
    16.1 A general view on airborne pollutants – an introduction
    16.2 A brief description of relevant gases and odor
    16.3 Control and reduction measures
    16.4 Final remarks

    17 Controlling the internal concentrations of particulate matter within and emissions from animal buildings
    Jens Seedorf
    17.1 The characteristics of airborne particles at a glance
    17.2 Control and reduction measures
    17.3 Final remarks

    18 Emission reduction from livestock buildings using a filtration device
    Thomas Banhazi
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Materials and methods
    18.3 Results and discussion
    18.4 Conclusions

    19 Effect of electrostatic precipitation on particulate matter emissions from a high-rise layer house
    Teng-Teeh Lim, Chaoyuan Wang, Albert J. Heber, Ji-Qin Ni and Lingying Zhao
    19.1 Introduction and objective
    19.2 Methods and procedures
    19.3 Experimental design
    19.4 Results and discussion
    19.5 Conclusions

    Section VI: Reduction methods and technologies for controlling airborne pollutants

    20 Oil-spraying technologies to be used for dust reduction in livestock buildings
    Hisamitsu Takai and Thomas Banhazi
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Fundamentals for designing oil-spraying for dust control
    20.3 Strategy of the oil-spraying operation
    20.4 Different types of oil-spraying systems
    20.5 Review of studies reported previously
    20.6 Recommendations for future studies

    21 Housing index development for a holistic air quality evaluation: A preliminary framework
    Jens Seedorf
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 The concepts of air quality indices
    21.3 Conclusions

    22 Computer-based management of air quality data: Development of a software system
    Thomas Banhazi
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 General description of the software
    22.3 Description of the main functionalities of the BASE-Q software
    22.4 Description of the main functionalities of the Pocket BASE-Q program
    22.5 Conclusion


    Associate Professor Thomas Banhazi is currently a Lecturer and Principal Scientist at University of Southern Queensland (USQ) responsible for the delivery of a number of agriculture related courses in addition to supervising a large number of post-graduate students. Associate Professor Banhazi has published in excess of 200 book chapters, journal and international conference papers and has been involved in approximately 40 research projects both in Europe and Australia funded by various government agencies and farmer organisations. He has successfully patented a number of innovative technologies in the US, Australia and Europe and actively engaged in the commercialisation of the patented inventions via his commercialisation companies. His expertise is mainly related to Precision Livestock Farming applications and environmental assessment methods. However, his research interests also include thermal and aerial environment of livestock buildings, the effect of airborne pollutants on the health of animals and workers, emission abatement and livestock waste management technologies.

    Associate professor Andres Aland is a Lecturer in Animal Health that involves both teaching and scientific activities at the Chair of Veterinary Bio- and Population Medicine at the Estonian University of Life Sciences. He has supervised a number of post-graduate students and published a large number of journal articles, conference papers and book chapters, including two textbooks published by the Wageningen Academic Publishers. Associate professor Aland has been involved in approximately 10 large research projects both in Estonia and Europe, funded by various governmental or European agencies. His expertise is mainly related to the areas of animal welfare and herd health monitoring in different production systems; environmental risks in production animal housing and preventive veterinary medicine. He is the Vice President of the International Society for Animal Hygiene and he is a member of numerous academic bodies nationally and internationally. Associate professor Aland has been the recipient of several national awards for his work as researcher, lecturer and post-graduate supervisor.

    Jörg Hartung (Dr. med. vet., Dr. med. vet. habil, Dr. h. c.) is veterinarian and Professor of Animal Hygiene, Husbandry and Welfare Science. He has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences for his scientific research on animal health/welfare and the effects of air pollutants on animals, humans and the environment. He was the Director of the Institute for Animal Hygiene, Welfare and Livestock Behaviour of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany for 20 years and served for 2 years as group leader at the Silsoe Research Institute, UK. His experience covers more than 35 years teaching and research in veterinary medicine and animal production on wide ranging topics such as (1) animal hygiene (2) animal welfare and health, (3) environmental protection and (4) occupational health aspects of farming. He is the President of the International Society for Animal Hygiene, chairman of the Committee for Animal Welfare in the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Germany, member of the Committee "Impact of Air Pollutants on Farm Animals" in German Engineers Association and member of the working group "Biological Risks at Workplace Agriculture", Germany. Currently he is an Emeritus Professor and since 2014 guest-Professor at University Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil.