1st Edition

Alkali Activated Fly Ash
Blast Furnace Slag Composites

  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after December 15, 2020
ISBN 9780367535544
December 15, 2020 Forthcoming by CRC Press
256 Pages 267 B/W Illustrations

USD $175.00

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Book Description

This book covers relevant synthesizing parameters, their interactions, and advantages of blending fly ash and blast furnace slag as source material, their relationship with mechanical properties and microstructure including guidelines to produce an optimal mix proportion. Further, it discusses related durability aspects, mechanical properties and reaction products and their inter-relationship. It explains phase characterization with XRD/SEM, change in the bond formulations with FTIR, FESEM and EDAX analysis. A mix design guideline based on empirical statistical concept has been put forward for professionals to manufacture customized activated fly ash composites in presence of slag.  Aimed at graduate/senior undergraduate students, researchers in civil engineering, construction engineering, ceramics, material sciences, this book:

  • Covers mechanical and microstructural properties, curing, durability of blended Alkali- activated composites with fly ash and blast furnace slag.
  • Proposes a guideline for mix design on chemical compositions of ingredients, relationship of synthesizing parameters, workability, target strength.
  • Describes sustainable green material manufacturing methodologies.
  • Discusses issues like microstructural properties and reaction mechanism.
  • Explores related modern experimental techniques like XRD, FTIR, MIP and so forth.

Table of Contents

1.  Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Alkali Activated Composites  and  Historical developments
1.2 Advantages of Alkali Activated Flyash -Blast Furnace Slag composites
1.3 Applications
1.4 Future prospect as a Green sustainable material

2. Polymerization and Microstructure of Alkali Activated Composites

2.1 Preamble
2.2     Polymerization
2.2.1  Degree of Polymerization
2.2.2  Non-evaporable water
2.2.3  Silicate polymerization
2.2.4  Kinetics of Alkali activated polymerization
2.2.5  Pore solution chemistry
2.2.6. Polymer Gels
2.2.7  Selectivity of  activators

2.3     Status of Recent research work
2.3.1  Reactivity of precursors with variation of base material and alkali
2.3.2  Parametric study on the performance of Alkali activated composites
2.3.3  Alkali activated composites with Supplementary Calcium compound
2.3.4  Durability of Alkali activated composites
2.3.5  Summary

3. Physical, Mechanical and Micro-structural properties of Alkali Activated
                      Paste and Mortar

3.1  Preamble
3.2       Source materials
3.2.1     Fly ash
3.2.2 Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)
3.2.3  Activator solution
3.3       Manufacturing process of Blended alkali activated composites
3.4  Testing procedures and Characterization of Blended Alkali Activated
            Composites (AAC) 
3.4.1  Workability/Flow
3.4.2   Setting time measurement
3.4.3   Bulk density and Apparent porosity
3.4.4   Water absorption
3.4.5     Water Sorptivity
3.4.6     Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)
3.4.7     Compressive strength
3.4.8      Physical changes and Optical Microscopy
3.4.9   X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis
3.4.10   Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) 
3.4.11    Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) test
3.4.12    Thermo-Gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal analysis
3.4.13    Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR)

3.5          Experimental investigation of Blended Alkali activated composites (AAC)
3.5.1       Preamble
3.5.2    Scope of work
3.5.3 Study on variation of Slag and Synthesizing parameters on Blended alkali
                      activated composites

3.6           Results and Discussion
3.6.1        Preamble
3.6.2     Engineering properties of AAC composites in Fresh state
3.6.3      Hardened properties of  Blended AAC
      Effect of Synthesizing parameters on Alkali activated composites containing Fly
      ash and Slag

4. Durability of Alkali Activated Paste and  Mortar

4.1         Preamble
4.2    Experimental investigation of Fly ash -Slag blended alkali activated composites
4.2.1 Study on Physico-mechanical properties of AAC  exposed to elevated
4.2.2  Study on AAC  composites exposed to Acid attack
4.2.3  Study on AAC  composites exposed to Sulphate attack
4.2.4  Study on properties of Fly ash-Slag blended alkali activated composites
           exposed to elevated Temperature
4.2.5  Study on properties of Blended alkali activated composites exposed to
                         sulphate  attack
4.3            Results and Discussion
4.3.1         Blended Alkali activated  composites exposed to elevated temperature

4.3.2             Durability of Fly ash-Slag Alkali activated  composites exposed to
                     Sulphuric acid

4.3.3              Durability of Fly ash-Slag Alkali activated composites exposed to Nitric acid

4.3.4             Durability of Fly ash based Alkali activated  composites exposed to
                     Magnesium sulphate solution

4.3.5                 Durability of Fly ash – Slag AAC specimens exposed to Sodium Sulphate

5. Prediction model and Mix design methodology of Fly ash – Slag
                     Alkali  Activated Composites

5.1       Preamble
5.2 Development of empirical relationships for predicting Compressive strength of
            Fly ash – Slag Alkali Activated Composites

5.2.1     Empirical relationship between Alkali content and Compressive strength
5.2.2     Empirical relationship between Silica content and Compressive strength
5.2.3     Empirical relationship between Compressive strength and Water content
5.2.4     Prediction of Compressive Strength of FAG composite
5.2.5      Relationship between Slag content and Compressive strength
5.2.6      Multiplying factors for Curing temperature and Curing duration
5.2.7      Multiplying factors for different fineness of slag
5.3         Prediction Model
5.3.1       Validation of the Prediction model
5.4            Mix design method
5.4.1        Mix design guidelines for Alkali activated composite (AAC)
5.4.2          Mix design example



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Kushal Ghosh has received Bachelor of Civil Engineering with distinction from Pune University-India in the year 2012 and Doctor of Philosophy from Jadavpur University-India in the year 2018. At present, he is serving as Assistant Professor in National Institute of Technology(NIT)-Sikkim – India . He has worked as Structural design Engineer in Skematic Consultant – India for four years. His major research area is “Sustainable High-Performance Green construction material”. He has guided eight students for their thesis at ME level. He has published several papers in peer reviewed journals and conferences mostly on “Alkali Activated Composites” and on “High Performance Concrete”. Partha Ghosh has received Bachelor of Civil Engineering from National Institute of Technology ( NIT)-Agartala-India in the year 2001, Master of Civil Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy from Jadavpur University-India in the year 2003 and 2007 respectively. At present, he is serving as Associate Professor in Jadavpur University – India. His major research area is “High Performance construction material”. He has guided fifteen students for their thesis at ME level and has guided two for their thesis at Ph.D level . He has published several papers in peer reviewed journals and conferences mostly on “High Performance construction material”. He has published two books out of which is one book on “Geopolymer”. He is a fellow of Institution of Engineers (India). He is rendering his services as Structural consultant at National level. He has done research in North Western University – USA, Monash University – Australia and Delft University-Netherlands.