Alternative Transportation Fuels : Utilisation in Combustion Engines book cover
1st Edition

Alternative Transportation Fuels
Utilisation in Combustion Engines

ISBN 9781138076662
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
464 Pages 296 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

A continuous rise in the consumption of gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum-based fuels will eventually deplete reserves and deteriorate the environment, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines explores the feasibility of using alternative fuels that could pave the way for the sustained operation of the transport sector. It assesses the potential avenues for using different alternative fuels in the transport sector, highlights several types of transport and its effect on the environment, and discusses the conventional and alternative fuels for land transport.

• Provides experimental investigations relating to the utilization of alternative fuels in the internal combustion engines

• Describes the alternative powered vehicles and potential alternative fuels for rail, marine, and aviation applications

• Highlights the potential global warming and climate change on account of utilizing the conventional and alternative fuels

The book starts off with coverage of the fuels for the land transport, aviation sector and reports on the experimental investigations relating to the utilisation of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. It delivers an in-depth analysis of engine combustion, then focuses on fuel quality characterization and a modeling of alternative-fuelled engines, and describes alternative-powered vehicles.

Based on the authors’ experience at laboratories around the globe, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines presents potential alternative fuels for rail, marine, and aviation applications. It examines potential global warming and climate change that could occur from the use of conventional and alternative fuels. It provides technical guidance on the future set up of refineries and automotive industries.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Land, Sea and Air Transportation


Modes of Different Transportation

Indigenous Production Levels of Crude Oil from Different Countries

Import and Export Levels in Different Countries

Refining Capacities of Petrol and Diesel-Worldwide

Energy Consumption: World View

Transportation Sector: Current Scenario:

Fossil Fuel Consumption in the Transport Sector

GHG Emissions from the Transportation Sector

Environmental Concerns

Environmental Standards

Sustainability Issues


Conventional Fuels for Land Transportation

Conventional Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines/Vehicles

Production of Gasoline/Diesel Fuels:

Refining Process to Produce Gasoline/Diesel

Conventional Fuels for a Spark Ignition Engine

Conventional Fuels for Compression Ignition Engines/Vehicles



Unsolved Problems


Alternative Fuels for Land Transportation


Alternative Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines

Alternative Fuels for a Compression Ignition Engine



Aviation Fuels


Fuel Quality Requirements of Aircraft Engines (Aircrafts and Helicopters)

Aviation Gasoline Fuel

Aviation Kerosene

Compressed Natural Gas

Liquefied Natural Gas

Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

Fischer-Tropsch Diesel

Carbon-Free Fuel: Compressed and Liquid Hydrogen

Carbon-Neutral and Sustainable Fuel

Production Technology of Aviation Fuel

Volume and Weight of Aviation Fuel for Smaller and Large-Sized Aircraft

Emission and Effects by Aviation Fuel



Utilisation of Alternative Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines/Vehicles

Spark Ignition Engines

Compression Ignition Engines



Unsolved Problems


Fuel Quality Characterization for Suitability of Internal Combustion Engines

General Introduction

Fuel Quality Study

Measurement of Fuel Properties

Emission Characteristics of Internal Combustion Engines

Chassis Dynamometer Study

Control Volume Sampling

Digas Analyzer

CLD Analyzer

Biodiesel Reactor

Air Flow Meter

Gas Mass Flow Meter

Test Bench Experimental Study

Field Trial Study

Modelling of Alternative Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine


Internal Combustion Engine Processes

Governing Equations for IC Engines

CI Engine Modelling for Alternative Fuels

Combustion in SI Engine


Unsolved problems


Greek Letters


Alternative Powered Vehicles

General Introduction

Bi Fuel Vehicle

Dual Fuel Vehicles

Electric Vehicles

Hybrid Vehicle

Fuel Cell Vehicles


Alternative Fuels for Rail Transportation


Types of Locomotives

Alternative Locomotives


Alternative Fuels for Marine Transportation

Introduction to Marine Fuels

Alternative Fuel for Marine Vehicles

Engine/Vehicle Technology

After-Treatment Technology for an Emission Reduction Selective Catalyst Reduction


Alternative Fuels for Aviation (Airbus and Helicopter)


Importance of Air Mode Transportation

Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Aero-Engines

Progress in the Use of Alternative Fuels for the Aviation Sector


Global Warming and Climate Change


Mechanism of Global Warming

Control Avenues for GHG Emissions

The Proposed GHG Emission Standards


Unsolved Problems



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M.K. Gajendra Babu is a senior professor at RMK Engineering College. He has worked in the field of computer simulation, alternative fuels, instrumentation, and emission controls for internal combustion engines for the past 44 years. He has published about 250 research papers for journals and conferences. He is a Fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International. He has been awarded the Indian Automobile Engineer of the Year award, the Indian Society of Technical Education’s Anna University Outstanding Academic Award, the Indian Society of Environment’s honorary fellowships from A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and the SAE India Foundation’s Automotive Education Award.

K.A. Subramanian is an associate professor in the Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. He is a former scientist in the Indian Institute of Petroleum. Dr. Subramanian’s research area includes utilisation of alternative fuels (biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, etc.) in internal combustion engines, the development of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) concept engine, greenhouse control in transport engines, sustainable power generation using a hybrid energy system, computer simulation, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). He has completed several sponsored R&D projects and published many research papers for journals and conferences. He was nominated to participate in the project Study Mission on Energy Efficiency, sponsored by the Asian Productivity Organization, Japan in 2009.


"The book presents a tour de force of technologies as diverse as oil refining, jet engines, bi-fuel engines and fuel cells. It is refreshing to see silos of knowledge being brought together in one book. In a world of emotive debate about the ethics of oil consumption, biofuel production and unequal access to transport, it is great to see an authoritative scientific treatment of the subject.
––Professor Dermot Roddy, Newcastle University, North Yorkshire, UK

"… The materials of production processes, utilization techniques and emission reduction of possible alternative fuels of combustion engines for various transportation modes of land, air and marine are comprehensively covered in this book. … The book can serve as a textbook or reference book for study, research or instructive courses related to alternative fuels."
––Professor Cherng-Yuan Lin, Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University