1st Edition

Alternative Transportation Fuels Utilisation in Combustion Engines

    464 Pages 296 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    464 Pages 296 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A continuous rise in the consumption of gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum-based fuels will eventually deplete reserves and deteriorate the environment, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines explores the feasibility of using alternative fuels that could pave the way for the sustained operation of the transport sector. It assesses the potential avenues for using different alternative fuels in the transport sector, highlights several types of transport and its effect on the environment, and discusses the conventional and alternative fuels for land transport.

    • Provides experimental investigations relating to the utilization of alternative fuels in the internal combustion engines

    • Describes the alternative powered vehicles and potential alternative fuels for rail, marine, and aviation applications

    • Highlights the potential global warming and climate change on account of utilizing the conventional and alternative fuels

    The book starts off with coverage of the fuels for the land transport, aviation sector and reports on the experimental investigations relating to the utilisation of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. It delivers an in-depth analysis of engine combustion, then focuses on fuel quality characterization and a modeling of alternative-fuelled engines, and describes alternative-powered vehicles.

    Based on the authors’ experience at laboratories around the globe, Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines presents potential alternative fuels for rail, marine, and aviation applications. It examines potential global warming and climate change that could occur from the use of conventional and alternative fuels. It provides technical guidance on the future set up of refineries and automotive industries.

    Introduction: Land, Sea and Air Transportation


    Modes of Different Transportation

    Indigenous Production Levels of Crude Oil from Different Countries

    Import and Export Levels in Different Countries

    Refining Capacities of Petrol and Diesel-Worldwide

    Energy Consumption: World View

    Transportation Sector: Current Scenario:

    Fossil Fuel Consumption in the Transport Sector

    GHG Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Environmental Concerns

    Environmental Standards

    Sustainability Issues


    Conventional Fuels for Land Transportation

    Conventional Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines/Vehicles

    Production of Gasoline/Diesel Fuels:

    Refining Process to Produce Gasoline/Diesel

    Conventional Fuels for a Spark Ignition Engine

    Conventional Fuels for Compression Ignition Engines/Vehicles



    Unsolved Problems


    Alternative Fuels for Land Transportation


    Alternative Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines

    Alternative Fuels for a Compression Ignition Engine



    Aviation Fuels


    Fuel Quality Requirements of Aircraft Engines (Aircrafts and Helicopters)

    Aviation Gasoline Fuel

    Aviation Kerosene

    Compressed Natural Gas

    Liquefied Natural Gas

    Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Fischer-Tropsch Diesel

    Carbon-Free Fuel: Compressed and Liquid Hydrogen

    Carbon-Neutral and Sustainable Fuel

    Production Technology of Aviation Fuel

    Volume and Weight of Aviation Fuel for Smaller and Large-Sized Aircraft

    Emission and Effects by Aviation Fuel



    Utilisation of Alternative Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines/Vehicles

    Spark Ignition Engines

    Compression Ignition Engines



    Unsolved Problems


    Fuel Quality Characterization for Suitability of Internal Combustion Engines

    General Introduction

    Fuel Quality Study

    Measurement of Fuel Properties

    Emission Characteristics of Internal Combustion Engines

    Chassis Dynamometer Study

    Control Volume Sampling

    Digas Analyzer

    CLD Analyzer

    Biodiesel Reactor

    Air Flow Meter

    Gas Mass Flow Meter

    Test Bench Experimental Study

    Field Trial Study

    Modelling of Alternative Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine


    Internal Combustion Engine Processes

    Governing Equations for IC Engines

    CI Engine Modelling for Alternative Fuels

    Combustion in SI Engine


    Unsolved problems


    Greek Letters


    Alternative Powered Vehicles

    General Introduction

    Bi Fuel Vehicle

    Dual Fuel Vehicles

    Electric Vehicles

    Hybrid Vehicle

    Fuel Cell Vehicles


    Alternative Fuels for Rail Transportation


    Types of Locomotives

    Alternative Locomotives


    Alternative Fuels for Marine Transportation

    Introduction to Marine Fuels

    Alternative Fuel for Marine Vehicles

    Engine/Vehicle Technology

    After-Treatment Technology for an Emission Reduction Selective Catalyst Reduction


    Alternative Fuels for Aviation (Airbus and Helicopter)


    Importance of Air Mode Transportation

    Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Aero-Engines

    Progress in the Use of Alternative Fuels for the Aviation Sector


    Global Warming and Climate Change


    Mechanism of Global Warming

    Control Avenues for GHG Emissions

    The Proposed GHG Emission Standards


    Unsolved Problems




    M.K. Gajendra Babu is a senior professor at RMK Engineering College. He has worked in the field of computer simulation, alternative fuels, instrumentation, and emission controls for internal combustion engines for the past 44 years. He has published about 250 research papers for journals and conferences. He is a Fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International. He has been awarded the Indian Automobile Engineer of the Year award, the Indian Society of Technical Education’s Anna University Outstanding Academic Award, the Indian Society of Environment’s honorary fellowships from A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and the SAE India Foundation’s Automotive Education Award.

    K.A. Subramanian is an associate professor in the Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. He is a former scientist in the Indian Institute of Petroleum. Dr. Subramanian’s research area includes utilisation of alternative fuels (biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, etc.) in internal combustion engines, the development of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) concept engine, greenhouse control in transport engines, sustainable power generation using a hybrid energy system, computer simulation, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). He has completed several sponsored R&D projects and published many research papers for journals and conferences. He was nominated to participate in the project Study Mission on Energy Efficiency, sponsored by the Asian Productivity Organization, Japan in 2009.

    "The book presents a tour de force of technologies as diverse as oil refining, jet engines, bi-fuel engines and fuel cells. It is refreshing to see silos of knowledge being brought together in one book. In a world of emotive debate about the ethics of oil consumption, biofuel production and unequal access to transport, it is great to see an authoritative scientific treatment of the subject.
    ––Professor Dermot Roddy, Newcastle University, North Yorkshire, UK

    "… The materials of production processes, utilization techniques and emission reduction of possible alternative fuels of combustion engines for various transportation modes of land, air and marine are comprehensively covered in this book. … The book can serve as a textbook or reference book for study, research or instructive courses related to alternative fuels."
    ––Professor Cherng-Yuan Lin, Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University