Winner of the James A. Duke Award for Excellence in Botanical Literature Award from the American Botanical Council
Compiled by the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia®, this volume addresses the lack of authoritative microscopic descriptions of those medicinal plant species currently in trade. It includes an atlas providing detailed text and graphic descriptions of more than 140 medicinal plant species and their adulterants.
Designed to meet the needs of the herbal products industry, regulatory agencies, and academic researchers, the book covers plant anatomy at a level appropriate for the pharmacognostic analysis of plant tissues, provides extensive coverage of the history and importance of botanical microscopy, and gives instruction on how to set up a microscopy lab and prepare, view, and archive whole and powdered plant parts for microscopic analysis.
The botanicals covered represent 90 percent of the dollar value of botanical sales in the United States. The focus is on those species that are in high use, and those that are commonly adulterated. It also covers a number of popular Asian botanicals, providing the first English language description for many of these.
Table of Contents
Introduction to Botanical Microscopy
Pharmacognosy: From Dioscorides to Modern Herbal Medicines
What’s in a Name? Nomenclature of Botanical Materials
To Be or Not To Be? A Focus on Botanical Adulteration
Microscopy for Identification of Botanical Raw Materials: Uses and Limitations
Setting Up a Microscopy Lab
Major Plant Groups
Structures of the Primary Plant Body and Basic Plant Anatomy
Diagnostic Characteristics of Tissues
Organization of Tissues in Medicinal Plant Parts
Preparation of Samples for Microscopic Analysis
Botanical Microscopy Atlas
Achillea millefolium L.
Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Aconitum kusnezoffi Reicher
Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt
Aesculus hippocastanum L.
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz
Aletris farinosa L.
Allium sativum L.
Angelica archangelica L.
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels
Arctium lappa L.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng
Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chou & S. M. Hwang
Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom
Arnica montana L.
Astragalus mongholicus Bunge syn. A. membranaceus Bunge, A. membranaceus Bunge var. mongholicus(Bunge) P. K. Hsiao
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz
Atropa belladonna L.
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell syn. Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettstein
Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb
Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.)Rich. and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten
Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray
Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton
Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch (syn. C. pubescens Vahl)
Clematis armandii Franch
Clematis chinensis Retz
Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis tangshen Oliv
Cola nitida (Vent.) A. Chev
Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, Coptis teeta Wall
Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Fruit
Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Leaf and Flower
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Fruit
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Leaf and Flower
Curcuma longa L.
Datura stramonium L.
Digitalis lanata Ehrh
Digitalis purpurea L.
Echinacea angustifolia DC
Echinacea atrorubens Nutt
Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Aerial Parts
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Root and Rhizome
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Seed
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim
Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, E. intermedia
Equisetum arvense L.
Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt syn. E. purpureum L.
Eupatorium perfoliatum L.
Frangula alnus Mill. syn. Rhamnus frangulaL.
Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper syn. Rhamnus purshianaDC
Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst
Ginkgo biloba L.
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.
Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. Gray
Hamamelis virginiana L.
Hedysarum polybotris Hand.-Mazz
Humulus lupulus L.
Hydrastis canadensis L. Leaf
Hydrastis canadensis L. Rhizome and Root
Hypericum perforatum L.
Illicium anisatum L.
Illicium verum J. D. Hook
Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moç. ex DC.) Coville
Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Singer syn. Lentinus edodes (Berk) Singer
Levisticum officinale W. Koch
Ligusticum porteri J. M. Coult.& Rose
Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton
Lycium chinense Mill.,L. barbarum L.
Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt
Matricaria recutita L.
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha × piperitaL.
Mentha pulegium L.
Mitchella repens L.
Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq
Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (unprocessed)
Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (processed)
Panax pseudo ginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. Chow & W. G. Huang
Panax quinquefolius L.
Parthenium integrifolium L.
Passiflora incarnata L.
Paullinia cupana Kunth
Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille
Periploca sepium Bunge
Petasites frigidus (L.) Frigs
Phyllanthus emblica L
Piper methysticum G.Forst
Plantago lanceolata L.
Plantago major L.
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb
Prunus africanum (Hook f.) Kalkman (syn. Pygeum africanum Hook. f.)
Prunus serotina Ehrh
Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth . ex Kurz
Rheum spp. (Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.)
Rhodiola rosea L.
Rumex crispus L.
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Root syn. Aucklandia costus Falc.; Aucklandia lappa Decne.; Saussurea lappa Decne. C. B. Clarke
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill
Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E. H. Wilson
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
Scutellaria lateriflora L.
Senna alexandrina Mill. (syn. Cassia senna, C. angustifolia, C. acutifolia)
Senna alexandrina Mill
Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn
Stephania tetrandra S. Moore
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni
Symphytum officinale L. Leaf
Symphytum officinale L. Root
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Leaf
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Root
Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb
Terminalia chebula Retz
Teucrium chamaedrys L.
Trifolium pratense L.
Tussilago farfara L.
Ulmus rubra Muhl
Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC
Urtica dioica L. Aerial Parts
Urtica dioica L. Rhizome and Root
Urtica urens L.
Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
Vaccinium myrtillus L.
Valeriana officinalis L.
Viburnum opulus L.
Viburnum prunifolium L.
Vitex agnus-castus L.
Withania somnifera L. Dunal
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Glossary of Botanical Microscopy Terminology
References and Bibliography
"This volume identifies plants by the classical method of light microscopy. Most earlier texts only listed plants used as drugs and never as extensively as the 135 economically valuable plants covered in this book. With a forward by our past DEB Norman Farnsworth, this text does an excellent job of offering adequate background on plant anatomy, diagnostic techniques, and tools of the trade. The drawings and images are very good and it is now no longer necessary to use analytical tools if one has good references such as this to identify plant powders and parts when manufacturing herbal products. This book received the James Duke Book Award from American Botanical Council publisher of Herbalgram. This microscopy text is invaluable to the natural products industry as it raises the scientific standards."
—Trish Flaster, Society For Economic Botany Newsletter, PLANTS & PEOPLE, Volume 26 Spring 2012
"… an authoritative and weighty book on the microscopic characterisation and identification of herbal medicines. … compiled by some of the leading experts in this field. In my view, this book will soon become a standard, universally accepted test in the area of pharmacognosy. Hence, this book should be on the shelves of every researcher of herbal medicine."
—Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, March 2012 17(1)
"…the real strength of this text is precisely its focus on botanical microscopy. I sincerely hope this excellent volume will rekindle interest in the botanical aspect of pharmacognosy in general and botanical microscopy in particular and contribute to the revitalisation of microscopy as an important tool for the quality control of herbal medicinal products and dietary supplements."
—Hans Wohlmuth, Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University NSW 2480, Australia, in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012
"Overall, Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines is a complete 'selfstarter kit.' Obviously, there are many other great resources available for those in need of more in-depth knowledge for the many topics covered in this book. But, if you want to learn about preparing botanical samples and viewing them under a microscope, gain understanding of the history of pharmacognosy and botanical microscopy, understand how the 2 fields have grown together and why all of this matters today, then this is the book for you."
"In recent years, I have feared that the botanical microscopy of medicinal plants was going to disappear because of the lack of teachers. Those who had taught it earlier were simply dying out. ... I had no idea that Upton et al, had been working so hard and so long on a book which describes not only HOW to do botanical microscopy but WHY this is so important. I opened it with joy. This excellent book fills an urgent need to re-establish the microscope as a contributory means of assessing the identity and quality of medicinal plant raw material."
—Roland Hardman, BPharm, BSe (Chern), Ph.D. (London), FRPharmS, Reader and Head of Pharmacognosy (Retired), School of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, UK
"… an excellent historical treatment … Roy Upton, the major driver for this work, has a long history of producing botanical monographs and his work and passion for botanicals has been clear, thorough, and accurate … the major authority on the microscopic identification of crude botanical ingredients."
—Norman R. Farnsworth, Ph.D., dr. hc (mult.), UIC Distinguished Professor, Research Professor of Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago
"… ideal access to the method itself and to solutions of specific problems … the AHP and its director, Roy Upton, are helping to revitalize botanical microscopy as a unique, valuable, rapid, and cost-effective assessment tool."
—Professor Dr. Wolfgang Kubelka, Professor Emeritus, University of Vienna