American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy - Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

Botanical Pharmacognosy - Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines, 1st Edition

Edited by Roy Upton, Alison Graff, Georgina Jolliffe, Reinhard Länger, Elizabeth Williamson

CRC Press

800 pages | 2101 Color Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420073263
pub: 2011-03-24
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429146749
pub: 2016-04-19
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Winner of the James A. Duke Award for Excellence in Botanical Literature Award from the American Botanical Council

Compiled by the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia®, this volume addresses the lack of authoritative microscopic descriptions of those medicinal plant species currently in trade. It includes an atlas providing detailed text and graphic descriptions of more than 140 medicinal plant species and their adulterants.

Designed to meet the needs of the herbal products industry, regulatory agencies, and academic researchers, the book covers plant anatomy at a level appropriate for the pharmacognostic analysis of plant tissues, provides extensive coverage of the history and importance of botanical microscopy, and gives instruction on how to set up a microscopy lab and prepare, view, and archive whole and powdered plant parts for microscopic analysis.

The botanicals covered represent 90 percent of the dollar value of botanical sales in the United States. The focus is on those species that are in high use, and those that are commonly adulterated. It also covers a number of popular Asian botanicals, providing the first English language description for many of these.


"This volume identifies plants by the classical method of light microscopy. Most earlier texts only listed plants used as drugs and never as extensively as the 135 economically valuable plants covered in this book. With a forward by our past DEB Norman Farnsworth, this text does an excellent job of offering adequate background on plant anatomy, diagnostic techniques, and tools of the trade. The drawings and images are very good and it is now no longer necessary to use analytical tools if one has good references such as this to identify plant powders and parts when manufacturing herbal products. This book received the James Duke Book Award from American Botanical Council publisher of Herbalgram. This microscopy text is invaluable to the natural products industry as it raises the scientific standards."

—Trish Flaster, Society For Economic Botany Newsletter, PLANTS & PEOPLE, Volume 26 Spring 2012

"… an authoritative and weighty book on the microscopic characterisation and identification of herbal medicines. … compiled by some of the leading experts in this field. In my view, this book will soon become a standard, universally accepted test in the area of pharmacognosy. Hence, this book should be on the shelves of every researcher of herbal medicine."

Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, March 2012 17(1)

"…the real strength of this text is precisely its focus on botanical microscopy. I sincerely hope this excellent volume will rekindle interest in the botanical aspect of pharmacognosy in general and botanical microscopy in particular and contribute to the revitalisation of microscopy as an important tool for the quality control of herbal medicinal products and dietary supplements."

—Hans Wohlmuth, Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University NSW 2480, Australia, in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012

"Overall, Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines is a complete 'selfstarter kit.' Obviously, there are many other great resources available for those in need of more in-depth knowledge for the many topics covered in this book. But, if you want to learn about preparing botanical samples and viewing them under a microscope, gain understanding of the history of pharmacognosy and botanical microscopy, understand how the 2 fields have grown together and why all of this matters today, then this is the book for you."

HerbalGram, 2011

"In recent years, I have feared that the botanical microscopy of medicinal plants was going to disappear because of the lack of teachers. Those who had taught it earlier were simply dying out. … I had no idea that Upton et al, had been working so hard and so long on a book which describes not only HOW to do botanical microscopy but WHY this is so important. I opened it with joy. This excellent book fills an urgent need to re-establish the microscope as a contributory means of assessing the identity and quality of medicinal plant raw material."

—Roland Hardman, BPharm, BSe (Chern), Ph.D. (London), FRPharmS, Reader and Head of Pharmacognosy (Retired), School of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, UK

"… an excellent historical treatment … Roy Upton, the major driver for this work, has a long history of producing botanical monographs and his work and passion for botanicals has been clear, thorough, and accurate … the major authority on the microscopic identification of crude botanical ingredients."

—Norman R. Farnsworth, Ph.D., dr. hc (mult.), UIC Distinguished Professor, Research Professor of Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago

"… ideal access to the method itself and to solutions of specific problems … the AHP and its director, Roy Upton, are helping to revitalize botanical microscopy as a unique, valuable, rapid, and cost-effective assessment tool."

—Professor Dr. Wolfgang Kubelka, Professor Emeritus, University of Vienna

Table of Contents

Introduction to Botanical Microscopy

Pharmacognosy: From Dioscorides to Modern Herbal Medicines

What’s in a Name? Nomenclature of Botanical Materials

To Be or Not To Be? A Focus on Botanical Adulteration

Microscopy for Identification of Botanical Raw Materials: Uses and Limitations

Setting Up a Microscopy Lab

Major Plant Groups

Structures of the Primary Plant Body and Basic Plant Anatomy

Diagnostic Characteristics of Tissues

Organization of Tissues in Medicinal Plant Parts

Preparation of Samples for Microscopic Analysis

Botanical Microscopy Atlas

Achillea millefolium L.

Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Aconitum kusnezoffi Reicher

Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt

Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz

Aletris farinosa L.

Allium sativum L.

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels

Arctium lappa L.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng

Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chou & S. M. Hwang

Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom

Arnica montana L.

Astragalus mongholicus Bunge syn. A. membranaceus Bunge, A. membranaceus Bunge var. mongholicus(Bunge) P. K. Hsiao

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

Atropa belladonna L.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell syn. Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettstein

Bupleurum spp

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb

Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.)Rich. and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray

Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton

Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch (syn. C. pubescens Vahl)

Clematis armandii Franch

Clematis chinensis Retz

Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis tangshen Oliv

Cola nitida (Vent.) A. Chev

Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, Coptis teeta Wall

Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Fruit

Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Leaf and Flower

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Fruit

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Leaf and Flower

Curcuma longa L.

Datura stramonium L.

Digitalis lanata Ehrh

Digitalis purpurea L.

Echinacea angustifolia DC

Echinacea atrorubens Nutt

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Aerial Parts

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Root and Rhizome

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Seed

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim

Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, E. intermedia

Epimedium spp

Equisetum arvense L.

Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt syn. E. purpureum L.

Eupatorium perfoliatum L.

Frangula alnus Mill. syn. Rhamnus frangulaL.

Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper syn. Rhamnus purshianaDC

Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst

Ginkgo biloba L.

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.

Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. Gray

Hamamelis virginiana L.

Hedysarum polybotris Hand.-Mazz

Humulus lupulus L.

Hydrastis canadensis L. Leaf

Hydrastis canadensis L. Rhizome and Root

Hypericum perforatum L.

Illicium anisatum L.

Illicium verum J. D. Hook

Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moç. ex DC.) Coville

Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Singer syn. Lentinus edodes (Berk) Singer

Levisticum officinale W. Koch

Ligusticum porteri J. M. Coult.& Rose

Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton

Lycium chinense Mill.,L. barbarum L.

Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt

Matricaria recutita L.

Melissa officinalis L.

Mentha × piperitaL.

Mentha pulegium L.

Mitchella repens L.

Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq

Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (unprocessed)

Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (processed)

Panax pseudo ginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. Chow & W. G. Huang

Panax quinquefolius L.

Parthenium integrifolium L.

Passiflora incarnata L.

Paullinia cupana Kunth

Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille

Periploca sepium Bunge

Petasites frigidus (L.) Frigs

Phyllanthus emblica L

Piper methysticum G.Forst

Plantago lanceolata L.

Plantago major L.

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

Prunus africanum (Hook f.) Kalkman (syn. Pygeum africanum Hook. f.)

Prunus serotina Ehrh

Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth . ex Kurz

Rheum spp. (Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.)

Rhodiola rosea L.

Rumex crispus L.

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Root syn. Aucklandia costus Falc.; Aucklandia lappa Decne.; Saussurea lappa Decne. C. B. Clarke

Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill

Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E. H. Wilson

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi

Scutellaria lateriflora L.

Senna alexandrina Mill. (syn. Cassia senna, C. angustifolia, C. acutifolia)

Senna alexandrina Mill

Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small

Serratula spp

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Stephania tetrandra S. Moore

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni

Symphytum officinale L. Leaf

Symphytum officinale L. Root

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip

Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Leaf

Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Root

Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb

Terminalia chebula Retz

Teucrium chamaedrys L.

Trifolium pratense L.

Tussilago farfara L.

Ulmus rubra Muhl

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC

Urtica dioica L. Aerial Parts

Urtica dioica L. Rhizome and Root

Urtica urens L.

Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton

Vaccinium myrtillus L.

Valeriana officinalis L.

Viburnum opulus L.

Viburnum prunifolium L.

Vitex agnus-castus L.

Withania somnifera L. Dunal

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Glossary of Botanical Microscopy Terminology

References and Bibliography


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HEALTH & FITNESS / Herbal Medications
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General