1st Edition

An Introduction to Advanced Fluid Dynamics and Fluvial Processes

By B. S. Mazumder, T. I. Eldho Copyright 2023
    660 Pages 307 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book covers fluid dynamics and fluvial processes, including basics applicable to open channel flow followed by turbulence characteristics related to sediment-laden flows. It presents well-balanced exposure of physical concepts, mathematical treatments, validation of the models/theories, and experimentations using modern electronic gadgets within the scope. In addition, it explores fluid motions, sediment-fluid interactions, erosion and scouring, sediment suspension and bed load transportation, image processing for particle dynamics, and various problems of applied fluid mechanics in natural sciences.


    • Gives comprehensive treatment on fluid dynamics and fluvial process from fundamentals to advanced level applications in one volume
    • Presents knowledge on sediment transport and its interaction with turbulence
    • Covers recent methodologies in the study of turbulent flow theories with verification of laboratory data collected by ADV, PIV, URS, LDA, and imaging techniques, and field data collected by MMB and S4 current meters
    • Explores the latest empirical formulae for the estimations of bed load, saltation, suspension, and bedform migration
    • Contains theory to experimentations with field practices with comprehensive explanations and illustrations

    This book is aimed at senior undergraduates, engineering and applied science postgraduate and research students working in mechanical, civil, geo-sciences, and chemical engineering departments pertaining to fluid mechanics, hydraulics, sediment transportation, and turbulent flows.

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    1.1 Background
    1.2 Fluid Dynamics
    1.3 Fluid Flow Analysis
    1.4 Fluid Turbulence
    1.5 Fluvial Hydraulics
    1.6 Sediment Transport
    1.7 Scope of the Book
    1.8 Highlights of the Book
    1.9 Book Content and Its Usage
    1.10 Summary

    Chapter 2: Fundamental Fluid Properties and Definitions
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Continuum Mechanics
    2.3 Fluid properties
    2.4 Perfect and Real Fluids
    2.5 Viscosity
    2.6 Dimensionless Numbers
    2.7 Statistical Analysis
    2.8 Concepts on Laminar and Turbulent Flows
    2.9 Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics
    2.10 Open Channel Flow
    2.11 Sediment Transport
    2.12 Summary
    2.13 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 3: Elementary Fluid Kinematics and Dynamics
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 General Descriptions of Fluid Motion
    3.3 Streamlines and Pathlines
    3.4 Vorticity
    3.5 Material Derivative and Acceleration
    3.6 Equation of Continuity (Conservation of Mass)
    3.7 Equations of Motion (Conservation of Momentum)
    3.8 Bernoulli’s Equation (Conservation of Energy)
    3.10 Potential Flow
    3.11 Summary
    3.12 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 4: Basic Concepts of Viscous Fluid Flows
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Flow through a Pipe (Hagen–Poiseuille Flow)
    4.3 Similarity Principles
    4.4 Drag and Lift Forces
    4.5 Viscous Boundary Layers
    4.6 Basic Equations of Laminar Flow (Navier–Stokes equations)
    4.7 Vorticity Transport Equations
    4.8 Some Exact Solutions of Navier–Stokes Equations
    4.9 Unsteady Motion of a Flat Plate (Stokes’s First Problem)
    4.10 Stagnation Point Flows
    4.11 Low Reynolds Number Flows (High Viscosity)
    4.12 Summary
    4.13 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 5: Boundary Layer Theory
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Boundary Layer Equations and Approximations
    5.3 Boundary Layer Along a Flat Plate
    5.4 Boundary Layer with Pressure Gradient on a Surface
    5.5 Momentum Integral Theorem for the Boundary Layer Flow
    5.6 Applications of the Momentum Integral Equation to Boundary Layers
    5.7 Boundary Layer for Entry Flow in a Duct
    5.8 Summary
    5.9 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 6: Turbulent Flow Analysis
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows
    6.3 Transition in Boundary Layer Over Solid Body
    6.4 Principles of Stability Theory
    6.5 Fundamentals of Turbulent Flows
    6.6 Classical Turbulence Modeling Using Semi-Empirical Theories
    6.7 Velocity Distributions Over the Flat Surface
    6.8 Universal Resistance Law
    6.9 Derivations of Energy Equations
    6.10 Mean Flows and Turbulence Characteristics
    6.11 Isotropic Turbulence
    6.12 Anisotropy of Turbulence
    6.13 Turbulent Flow Analysis – Applications
    6.14 Summary
    6.15 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 7: Turbulent Flow Measurements and Instrumentations
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Instrumentations for Laboratory Flow Measurements
    7.3 Field Velocity Measuring Instruments
    7.4 Hydraulic Flumes 
    7.5 Flume Experimental Set-up: Case Studies 
    7.6 Turbulence in Natural Rivers
    7.7 Summary
    7.8 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 8: Sediment Transport Phenomena
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Properties of Individual Sediment Particles
    8.3 Motion with Linear Resistance
    8.4 Effect of Particles on Viscosity
    8.5 Bulk Properties of Sediments
    8.6 Incipient Motion of Sediment Particles
    8.7 Semi-Empirical Equations for Incipient Motion
    8.8 Shear Stress for Sloping of River Bed and Bank
    8.9 River Bank Erosion
    8.10 Probabilistic Concepts of Incipient Sediment Motion
    8.11 Threshold of Incipient Motion Due to Turbulent Bursting
    8.12 Threshold Motion of Mixed Grain Sizes
    8.13 Summary
    8.14 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 9: Bed Load Transport, Suspension, and Total Load
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Modes of Sediment Movement
    9.3 Bed Load Transport Phenomena
    9.4 Bed Load Transport Equations
    9.5 Probabilistic Concept for Bed-Load Transport
    9.6 Saltation
    9.7 Image Analysis on Particle Motion
    9.8 Suspended Load
    9.9 Direct Computation of Suspension Grain Size Distributions
    9.10 Sediment Concentration in Suspension
    9.11 Stratification Effects by Suspension Concentration
    9.12 Bed Roughness Effects on Suspension Distributions
    9.13 Total Load
    9.14 Summary
    9.15 Exercise Problems

    Chapter 10: Bedform Migration and Scour Structures
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Resistance to Flow
    10.3 Resistance Formulae
    10.4 Bedforms
    10.5 Empirical Relations for Ripples and Dunes
    10.6 Sand Bars
    10.7 Theoretical Developments
    10.8 Different Types of Ripples
    10.9 Initiation of Bedforms
    10.10 Bedform Migration
    10.11 Scouring Process
    10.12 Scour around Cylindrical Bridge Piers
    10.13 Flow and Scour around Complex Bridge Piers
    10.14 Scour Protection Measures
    10.15 Experimental and Field Studies on Scour Protection Systems
    10.16 Summary
    10.17 Exercise Problems




    Professor B. S. Mazumder is a former Visiting Professor at the Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay. After his retirement from Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Kolkata, as a Professor and Head of the Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, and In-Charge of Fluvial Mechanics Laboratory, Professor Mazumder joined as an Emeritus Fellow at the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, IIEST, Shibpur, and as a Visiting Professor at the Civil Engineering Department of at IIT Bombay. Soon after his Ph.D. Degree (1976) from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur in Applied Mathematics (Fluid Mechanics), B. S. Mazumder joined as a Post-doctoral Fellow at the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Kolkata, to work on the problems of Applied Fluid Mechanics with Professor Supriya Sengupta, Geologist and Professor J. K. Ghosh, Statistician. Since then, he has been working on various problems of inter-disciplinary nature, in the areas of Turbulence, Fluvial sediment transport, Particle-size distributions, Combined wave-current flows over bedforms, Convection-diffusion process, Flow visualization and image processing, Navigation hydraulics, Flow and heat transfer. He took initiatives and was instrumental to upgrade the existing laboratory, and named as Fluvial Mechanics Laboratory (FML) at ISI Kolkata with sophisticated equipment and excellent research facilities. A hi-tech laboratory is developed to elucidate various problems of statistical fluid mechanics related to turbulence and sediment transport. He received the financial supports from ISI, INSA, DST, DOD, NBHM and CSIR for several interdisciplinary projects. During the period 1989–1991, he worked as a Guest Scientist at the Illinois State Water Survey, UIUC, USA to work on turbulence generated due to navigation traffic in Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. During his tenure at ISI, Kolkata, he supervised nine Ph. D. Theses, seven Postdoctoral Fellows and ten Project Assistants.

    As an Emeritus at IIEST Shibpur Prof. Mazumder was closely associated with the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. He was also involved as a Visiting Professor (2015–2021) in the Civil Engineering Department of IIT Bombay. During this period, he shared his innovative ideas in the development of the Hydraulics Laboratory in the department. He mentored 12 Ph. D. Scholars of different premier universities and institutes. He has more than 170 research papers to his credit in peer-reviewed journals, like JFM, Proc. Roy. Soc., Physics of Fluids-AIP, JGR, WRR, AWR, FDR, JHR (IAHR), JHE (ASCE), JFE (ASME), IJHMT, Sedimentology, Sedimentary Geology, SERRA, ESPL, etc. and many national and international Conference Proceedings. He visited several places in India and abroad, and delivered invited talks. He is a Fellow of Indian Society for Hydraulics (FISH). Prof. Mazumder was a Guest Scientist/Professor at different Universities, like the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Stanford University, University of California-Davis (UC-Davis), UC-Santa Barbara (UCSB), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), New York, MITCambridge, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, SUNY-Binghamton, USA, University of Western Ontario, Simon Fraser University (SFU)-Canada, Nottingham University, Sheffield University, UCL, King’s College, Cambridge University, UK, University of Stuttgart, University of Munich, University of Karlsruhe, Germany, ICTP-Italy, Technical University of Denmark, Tsinghua University, Beijing and many others. Prof. Mazumder is still deeply engrossed in his research domain.

    Dr T. I. Eldho is a Professor & Former Head and Chair of the Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay. He has more than 30 years of experience in the area of water resources and environmental engineering as a Scientist, Professor and Consultant. He works in the areas of Fluid Mechanics, Turbulence, Hydraulics Coastal Hydrodynamics, and Climate Change Impact on Water Resources, CFD, Groundwater Flow, and Contaminant transport. He got his Ph.D. from IIT Bombay in 1995 and worked as Postdoctoral Fellow at the Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe (currently Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), Germany during 1996–1998. During 1998–1999, he worked as Water Resources Modeler and Consultant at Mott MacDonald Company in Cambridge UK. Later Dr. Eldho worked as a Senior Research Fellow at Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei during 1999–2000. In 2000, Dr. Eldho returned to India and joined at Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur as a Faculty. Further Dr. Eldho joined IIT Bombay as a Faculty in 2001 and continued his teaching, research, and professional career. He has developed Hydraulics Laboratory of IIT Bombay with many sophisticated equipment and facilities. During the past 21 years at IIT Bombay, Dr. Eldho has guided 35 Ph.Ds., nine Postdoctoral Fellows and 60 Masters theses. He has published more than 220 research papers in reputed international and national journals and more than 350 papers in various international and national conferences. He has developed and offered 25 courses and a number of short-term courses for college teachers and working professionals. Dr. Eldho has delivered more than 200 invited lectures at various institutions in India and abroad. He has also developed two popular video courses on "Fluid Mechanics" and "Watershed Management." Prof. Eldho serves as an Editor/Associate Editor and Editorial Board Member of a number of Indian and international journals and has worked as a reviewer for more than 50 national and international journals in the recent past. He is also a research proposal reviewer for many research organizations and delivered several invited/keynote lectures at various national and international organizations and conferences. Dr. Eldho has co-authored two popular textbooks and contributed 20 book chapters in various edited books. Dr. Eldho has worked as a Consultant for many State and Central Government organizations, municipal corporations and companies in the areas of hydraulics, fluid mechanics, flood studies, sump model studies, hydraulic designs, etc. He completed more than 100 consultancy projects and more than 10 sponsored projects with agencies such as ISRO, DST, and various Ministries of State and Central Governments. Dr. Eldho is a recipient of many prestigious awards including Eminent Water Resources Scientist, constituted by the Indian Water Resources Society in 2018.