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An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques




ISBN 9780849389108
Published December 18, 1995 by CRC Press
304 Pages

 
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Book Description

An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is unique in the meteorological field as it presents for the first time theories and software of complex dynamical and physical processes required for numerical modeling. It was first prepared as a manual for the training of the World Meteorological Organization's programs at a similar level. This new book updates these exercises and also includes the latest data sets.
This book covers important aspects of numerical weather prediction techniques required at an introductory level. These techniques, ranging from simple one-dimensional space derivative to complex numerical models, are first described in theory and for most cases supported by fully tested computational software. The text discusses the fundamental physical parameterizations needed in numerical weather models, such as cumulus convection, radiative transfers, and surface energy fluxes calculations.
The book gives the user all the necessary elements to build a numerical model. An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is rich in illustrations, especially tables showing outputs from each individual algorithm presented. Selected figures using actual meteorological data are also used.
This book is primarily intended for senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students in meteorology. It is also excellent for individual scientists who wish to use the book for self-study. Scientists dealing with geophysical data analysis or predictive models will find this book filled with useful techniques and data-processing algorithms.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Finite Differences
Finite Difference Formulation
First Derivative
Second Derivative
The Laplacian Operator
The Jacobian Operator
Time Differencing
Calculation of Vertical Motion
Vertical Velocity from Irregularly Spaced Wind Data
Vertical Velocity from Regularly Spaced Wind Data
Vertical Velocity from the Quasi-Geostrophic Omega Equation
Multilevel Non-Linear Balance Omega Equation
Numerical Algorithms
Estimation of Streamfunctions, Velocity Potential, and Geopotential Height from the Wind Field
Relaxation Method
Fourier Transform Method
Geopotential Height from the Wind Field
Objective Analysis
Panofsky's Method, Polynomial Approach
Cressman's Method, Successive Corrections Technique
Barnes' Objective Analysis Scheme
Optimum Interpolation Technique
Basic Physical Concepts
Conversion of Moisture Variables
Determination of the Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)
Moist Adiabatic Profile
Convective Adjustment
A Simple Cloud Model
Cumulus Convection and Large Scale Condensation
Cumulus Convection
Arakawa-Schubert Cumulus Parameterization Scheme
Large Scale Condensation
Planetary Boundary Layer
Bulk Aerodynamic Calculation over Ocean and Land
Roughness Parameter
Surface Fluxes from Similarity Theory
Height of the Boundary Layer in an Unstable Situation
Height of the Boundary Layer in a Stable Situation
Vertical Distribution of Fluxes
Radiative Transfers
Longwave Radiation
Shortwave Radiation
Cloud Specification
Radiative Heat Balance at the Earth's Surface
The Code
The Barotropic Model
Dynamics of the Barotropic Model
Properties of Barotropic Flow
Barotropic Energy Exchange
Model Structure and Boundary Conditions
Treatment of the Advective Terms and Time Differencing Scheme
Initial Conditions
Description of the Code
The Single Level Primitive Equations Model
Dynamic of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model
Properties of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model
Model Structure and Boundary Conditions
Treatment of the Advective Terms and Time Differencing Scheme
Computation of the Forcing Functions
Initialization of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model
Data Sets for Numerical Weather Prediction
Rainfall Distribution from Outgoing Longwave Radiation
SSM/I Based Rain Rates, Wind Speed, and Total Precipitable Water
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
Fractional Cloud Cover
Model Output Diagnostics
Energy and Energy Transformation Terms
On the Computation of the 4-Dimensional Trajectories
References
List of Subroutines
Index

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