An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques

1st Edition

By T. N. Krishnamurti, Lahouari Bounoua

CRC Press

293 pages

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Hardback: 9780849389108
pub: 1995-12-18
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Description

An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is unique in the meteorological field as it presents for the first time theories and software of complex dynamical and physical processes required for numerical modeling. It was first prepared as a manual for the training of the World Meteorological Organization's programs at a similar level. This new book updates these exercises and also includes the latest data sets.

This book covers important aspects of numerical weather prediction techniques required at an introductory level. These techniques, ranging from simple one-dimensional space derivative to complex numerical models, are first described in theory and for most cases supported by fully tested computational software. The text discusses the fundamental physical parameterizations needed in numerical weather models, such as cumulus convection, radiative transfers, and surface energy fluxes calculations.

The book gives the user all the necessary elements to build a numerical model. An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is rich in illustrations, especially tables showing outputs from each individual algorithm presented. Selected figures using actual meteorological data are also used.

This book is primarily intended for senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students in meteorology. It is also excellent for individual scientists who wish to use the book for self-study. Scientists dealing with geophysical data analysis or predictive models will find this book filled with useful techniques and data-processing algorithms.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Finite Differences

Finite Difference Formulation

First Derivative

Second Derivative

The Laplacian Operator

The Jacobian Operator

Time Differencing

Calculation of Vertical Motion

Vertical Velocity from Irregularly Spaced Wind Data

Vertical Velocity from Regularly Spaced Wind Data

Vertical Velocity from the Quasi-Geostrophic Omega Equation

Multilevel Non-Linear Balance Omega Equation

Numerical Algorithms

Estimation of Streamfunctions, Velocity Potential, and Geopotential Height from the Wind Field

Relaxation Method

Fourier Transform Method

Geopotential Height from the Wind Field

Objective Analysis

Panofsky's Method, Polynomial Approach

Cressman's Method, Successive Corrections Technique

Barnes' Objective Analysis Scheme

Optimum Interpolation Technique

Basic Physical Concepts

Conversion of Moisture Variables

Determination of the Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)

Moist Adiabatic Profile

Convective Adjustment

A Simple Cloud Model

Cumulus Convection and Large Scale Condensation

Cumulus Convection

Arakawa-Schubert Cumulus Parameterization Scheme

Large Scale Condensation

Planetary Boundary Layer

Bulk Aerodynamic Calculation over Ocean and Land

Roughness Parameter

Surface Fluxes from Similarity Theory

Height of the Boundary Layer in an Unstable Situation

Height of the Boundary Layer in a Stable Situation

Vertical Distribution of Fluxes

Radiative Transfers

Longwave Radiation

Shortwave Radiation

Cloud Specification

Radiative Heat Balance at the Earth's Surface

The Code

The Barotropic Model

Dynamics of the Barotropic Model

Properties of Barotropic Flow

Barotropic Energy Exchange

Model Structure and Boundary Conditions

Treatment of the Advective Terms and Time Differencing Scheme

Initial Conditions

Description of the Code

The Single Level Primitive Equations Model

Dynamic of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model

Properties of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model

Model Structure and Boundary Conditions

Treatment of the Advective Terms and Time Differencing Scheme

Computation of the Forcing Functions

Initialization of the Single Level Primitive Equations Model

Data Sets for Numerical Weather Prediction

Rainfall Distribution from Outgoing Longwave Radiation

SSM/I Based Rain Rates, Wind Speed, and Total Precipitable Water

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Fractional Cloud Cover

Model Output Diagnostics

Energy and Energy Transformation Terms

On the Computation of the 4-Dimensional Trajectories

References

List of Subroutines

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MAT021000
MATHEMATICS / Number Systems
SCI042000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Meteorology & Climatology