**Also available as eBook on:**

Provides comprehensive coverage of all the fundamentals of quantum physics. Full mathematical treatments are given. Uses examples from different areas of physics to demonstrate how theories work in practice. Text derived from lectures delivered at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Preface

Learning Aids for Quantum Physics**1 Simple models of the atom**Introduction

The classical atom

The electrical structure of matter

The Thomson atom

Line spectra

Photons

The Rutherford-Bohr atom

Further predictions of the Bohr model

Direct evidence of discrete energy levels

X-ray spectra

A note on x-ray spectroscopy

Concluding remarks

Exercises

**The wave properties of particles**

De Broglie’s hypothesis

De Broglie waves and particle velocities

Calculated magnitudes of De Broglie wavelengths

The Davisson-Germer experiments

More about the Davisson-Germer experiments

Further manifestations of the wave properties of electrons

Wave properties of neutral atoms and molecules

Wave properties of nuclear particles

The meaning of the wave-particle duality

The coexistence of wave and particle properties

A first discussion of quantum amplitudes

Exercises

**Wave-particle duality and bound states**

Preliminary remarks

The approach to a particle-wave equation

The Schrodinger equation

Stationary states

Particle in a one-dimensional box

Unique energy without unique momentum

Interpretation of the quantum amplitudes for bound states

Particles in nonrigid boxes

Square well of finite depth

Normalization of the wave function

Qualitative plots of bound-state wave functions

Exercises

**Solutions of Schrodinger’s equation in one dimension**

Introduction

The square well

The harmonic oscillator

Vibrational energies of diatomic molecules

Computer solutions of the Schrodinger equation

Exercises

**Further applications of Schrodinger’s equation**

Introduction

The three-dimensional Schrodinger equation

Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues

Particle in a three-dimensional box

Spherically symmetric solutions for hydrogen-like systems

Normalization and probability densities

Expectation values

Computer solutions for spherically symmetric hydrogen wave functions

Exercises

**Photons and quantum states**

Introduction

States of linear polarization

Linearly polarized photons

Probability and the behavior of polarized photons

States of circular polarization

Orthogonality and completeness

Quantum states

Statistical and classical properties of light

Concluding remarks

APPENDIX: POLARIZED LIGHT AND ITS PRODUCTION

6A-1 The production of linearly polarized light

6A-2 The production of circularly polarized light

Suggested experiments with linearly polarized light

Exercises

**Quantum amplitudes and state vectors**

Introduction

The analyzer loop

Paradox of the recombined beams

Interference effect in general

Formalism of projection amplitudes

Properties of projection amplitudes

Projection amplitudes for states of circular polarization

The state vector

The state vector and the Schrodinger wave function for bound states

Exercises

**The time dependence of quantum states**

Introduction

Superposition of states

An example of motion in a box

Packet states in a square-well potential

The position-momentum uncertainty relation

The uncertainty principle and ground-state energies

Free-particle packet states

Packet states for moving particles

Examples of moving packet states

The energy-time uncertainty relation

Examples of the energy-time uncertainty relation

The shape and width of energy levels

Exercises

**Particle scattering and barrier penetration**

Scattering processes in terms of wave packets

Time-independent approach to scattering phenomena

Probability density and probability current

Scattering by a one-dimensional well

Barrier penetration tunneling

Probability current and barrier penetration problems

An approximation for barrier penetration calculations

Field emission of electrons

Spherically symmetric probability currents

Quantitative theory of alpha decay

Scattering of wave packets

Exercises

**Angular momentum**

Introduction

Stern-Gerlach experiment: theory

Stern-Gerlach experiment: descriptive

Magnitudes of atomic dipole moments

Orbital angular momentum operators

Eigenvalues of L.

Simultaneous eigenvalues

Quantum states of a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator

Exercises

**Angular momentum of atomic systems**

Introduction

Total orbital angular momentum in central fields

Rotational states of molecules

Spin angular momentum

Spin orbit coupling energy

Formalism for total angular momentum

APPENDIX – THE SCHRODINER EQUATION IN SPHERICAL CORRDINATES

Exercises

**Quantum states of three-dimensional systems**

Introduction

The coulomb model

General features of the radial wave functions for hydrogen

Exact radial wave functions for hydrogen

Complete Coulomb wave functions

Classification for energy eigenstates in hydrogen

Spectroscopic notation

Fine structure of hydrogen energy levels

Isotopic fine structure: heavy hydrogen

Other hydrogen-like systems

Exercises

**Identical particles and atomic structure**

Introduction

Schrodinger’s equation for two noninteracting particles

The consequences of identity

Spin states for two particles

Exchange symmetry and the Pauli principle

When does symmetry or antisymmetry matter?

Measurability of the symmetry character

States of the helium atom

Many-electron atoms

General structure of a massive atom

Exercises

**Radiation by atoms**

Introduction

The classical Hertzian dipole

Radiation for an arbitrary charge distribution

Radiating dipoles according to wave mechanics

Radiation rates and atomic lifetimes

Selection rules and radiation patterns

Systematics of line spectra

Angular momentum of photons

Magnetic dipole radiation and galactic hydrogen

Concluding remarks

Exercises

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

SELECTED PHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

INDEX

### Biography

A.P. French