Analysing Design Thinking: Studies of Cross-Cultural Co-Creation  book cover
1st Edition

Analysing Design Thinking: Studies of Cross-Cultural Co-Creation

ISBN 9781138748446
Published July 12, 2017 by CRC Press
600 Pages

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Book Description

The scientific analysis of design thinking continues to burgeon and is of considerable interest to academic scholars and design practitioners across many disciplines. This research tradition has generated a growing corpus of studies concerning how designers think during the creation of innovative products, although less focus has been given to analysing how designers think when creating less tangible deliverables such as concepts and user-insights.

Analysing Design Thinking: Studies of Cross-Cultural Co-Creation brings together 28 contributions from internationally-leading academics with a shared interest in design thinking who take a close look at professional designers working on a project that not only involves soft deliverables, but where a central role is played by co-creation across multiple, culturally diverse stakeholders.

This collection of detailed, multi-method analyses gives a unique insight into how a Scandinavian design team tackled a specific design task within the automotive industry over a four-month design process. All papers draw upon a common, video-based dataset and report analyses that link together a diversity of academic disciplines including psychology, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, architecture, management, engineering and design studies. The dataset affords multiple entry points into the analysis of design thinking, with the selected papers demonstrating the application of a wide range of analytic techniques that generate distinct yet complementary insights. Collectively these papers provide a coherent framework for analysing and interpreting design thinking ‘in vivo’ through video-based field studies.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction: Shared Data in Design Research
Bo T. Christensen, Linden J. Ball & Kim Halskov

2 Inside the DTRS11 Dataset: Background, Content, and Methodological Choices
Bo T. Christensen & Sille Julie J. Abildgaard

Part I Team Dynamics and Conflicts

3 Psychological Factors Surrounding Disagreement in Multicultural DesignTeam Meetings
Susannah B. F. Paletz, Arlouwe Sumer & Ella Miron-Spektor

4 Resourcing of Experience in Co-Design
Salu Ylirisku, Line Revsbæk & Jacob Buur

5 The Importance of Leadership in DesignTeam Problem-Solving
Chih-Chun Chen, Maria A. Neroni, Luis A. Vasconcelos & Nathan Crilly

6 Communication and Design Decisions in Cross-FunctionalTeams
Olaitan Awomolo, Javaneh Jabbariarfaei, Nairiti Singh & Ömer Akin

7 A Computational Linguistic Approach to Modelling the Dynamics of Design Processes
Joel Chan & Christian D. Schunn

Part II Designing Across Cultures

8 Disciplina: A Missing Link for Cross Disciplinary Integration
Frido Smulders & David Dunne

9 How Cultural Knowledge Shapes DesignThinking – a Situation-Specific Analysis ofAvailability,Accessibility and Applicability of Cultural Knowledge in Inductive, Deductive and Abductive Reasoning inTwo Design Debriefing Sessions
Torkil Clemmensen, Apara Ranjan & Mads Bødker

10 Situated Cultural Differences:ATool for Analyzing Cross-Cultural Co-Creation
Tejas Dhadphale

11 Designers’ Articulation and Activitation of Instrumental Design Judgements in Cross-Cultural User Research
Colin M. Gray & Elizabeth Boling

Part III Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Design Thinking

12 Metacognition in Creativity: ProcessAwareness Used to Facilitate the Creative Process
Dagny Valgeirsdottir & Balder Onarheim

13 Grouping NotesThrough Nodes: The Functions of Post-it Notes in DesignTeam Cognition
Graham Dove, Sille Julie J. Abildgaard, Michael Mose Biskjaer, Nicolai Brodersen Hansen, Bo T. Christensen & Kim Halskov

14 Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a DesignTeam as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes
Bo T. Christensen & Linden J. Ball

15 Temporal Static Visualisation ofTranscripts for Pre-Analysis ofVideo Material: Identifying Modes of Information Sharing
Andreas Wulvik, Matilde Bisballe Jensen & Martin Steinert

Part IV Design Talk

16 Combining Computational and Human Analysis to Study Low Coherence in Design Conversation
Axel Menning, Bastien Marvin Grasnick, Benedikt Ewald, Franziska Dobrigkeit & Claudia Nicolai

17 “Comfy’’ Cars for the “Awesomely Humble’’: Exploring Slang and Jargongs in a Cross-Cultural Design Process
Newton D’souza & Mohammad Dastmalchi

18 Design {Thinking | Communicating}: A Sociogenetic Approach to Reflective Practice in Collaborative Design
Alfredo Jornet & Wolff-Michael Roth

Table of Contents vii19 Unpacking a DesignThinking Process With Discourse and Social Network Analysis
Denise A. D. Bedford, Jennifer Weil Arns & Karen Miller

Part V Framing in Design

20 Design Roulette: A Close Examination of Collaborative Decision Making in Design From the Perspective of Framing
Janet McDonnell

21 Planning Spontaneity: A Case Study About Method Configuration
Koen van Turnhout, Jan Henk Annema, Judith van de Goor, Marjolein Jacobs & René Bakker

22 Problem Structuring as Co-Inquiry
Robin S. Adams, Richard Aleong, Molly Goldstein & Freddy Solis

23 Designing the Constraints: Creation Exercises for Framing the Design Context
Claudia Eckert & Martin Stacey

Part VI Co-Creating With Users

24 Cracking Open Co-Creation: Categorizations, Stories,Values
Peter Lloyd & Arlene Oak

25 From Observations to Insights: The Hilly Road toValue Creation
Andy Dong & Erin MacDonald

26 Empathy in Design: A Discourse Analysis of Industrial Co-Creation Practices
Justin L. Hess & Nicholas D. Fila

Part VII Design Iterations and Co-Evolution

27 Information-Triggered Co-Evolution: A Combined Process Perspective
Phil Cash & Milene Gonçalves

28 Team Idea Generation in the Wild: AView From FourTimescales
Kathryn Shroyer, Jennifer Turns, Terri Lovins, Monica Cardella & Cynthia J. Atman

29 Structures ofTime in DesignThinking
Carlos Teixeira, Zhabiz Shafieyoun, Juan Alfonso de la Rosa, Jun Cai, Honghai Li, Xing Xu & Xu Chen

30 Tracing Problem Evolution: FactorsThat Impact Design Problem Definition
Shanna Daly, Seda McKilligan, Laura Murphy & Anastasia Ostrowski

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Bo Christensen is Professor with special responsibilities in Creative Cognition at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark. His research concerns the study of creativity in various domains including design, innovation, and cuisine, and involves studies of creative cognition, the evaluation of creativity, analogical reasoning, and idea selection in product development.  Using video recordings of creative teams at work in their natural environment (both professional designers and non-skilled students) he studies the underlying cognitive processes and mechanisms of creative work. He was twice awarded the Design Studies Award by the Design Research Society for best paper published in Design Studies (co-authored) in 2013 and 2009. He is also an editorial board member of CoDesign, She Ji, and International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation.

Linden Ball is Professor of Cognitive Psychology at the University of Central Lancashire, UK, where he is also Dean of the School of Psychology. He conducts experimental research on fundamental deductive and inductive reasoning processes as well as naturalistic research examining thinking, problem solving and creativity in design. His research is characterized by the use of a mixed-methods approach that involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques. His most recent published work focuses on the role of metacognition in thinking and reasoning, including the ways in which feelings of uncertainty engender strategic shifts in people’s information processing. He is the editor of the Routledge book series entitled Current Issues in Thinking & Reasoning and co-editor of the Routledge International Handbook of Thinking & Reasoning. He is also an Associate Editor for Journal of Cognitive Psychology and Thinking & Reasoning and a member of the editorial boards of CoDesign, Design Studies and She Ji.

Kim Halskov is Professor of Interaction Design at Aarhus University, Denmark, director of Centre for Advanced Visualization and Interaction (CAVI) and co-director of the Centre for Participatory IT at Aarhus University. Kim has a background in participatory design and his research areas include design processes, participatory design, creative processes, and interaction design. Kim is the project manager for the research project CIBIS (Creativity in Blended Interaction Spaces); a project that develops and explores Blended Interaction Spaces seeking to supporting the creative potential of young people at the high school level. The objectives are to demonstrate the potentials of integrating multiple digital devices and physical materials in a shared environment to support individual and collaborative creativity and to develop the theoretical foundation for the study of creativity constraints, design ideas, generative design materials, and creative methods in design processes.