Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation

2nd Edition

By Robert B. Northrop

CRC Press

578 pages | 411 B/W Illus.

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Description

Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation, Second Edition helps biomedical engineers understand the basic analog electronic circuits used for signal conditioning in biomedical instruments. It explains the function and design of signal conditioning systems using analog ICs—the circuits that enable ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, tomographic images, biochemical spectrograms, and other crucial medical applications.

This book demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning system design and illustrates how they can be used to build instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and many other biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It introduces the mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems, and it looks at how signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by signal averaging and linear filtering.

Features

  • Analyzes the properties of photonic sensors and emitters and the circuits that power them
  • Details the design of instrumentation amplifiers and medical isolation amplifiers
  • Considers the modulation and demodulation of biomedical signals
  • Examines analog power amplifiers, including power op amps and class D (switched) PAs
  • Describes wireless patient monitoring, including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication protocols
  • Explores RFID, GPS, and ultrasonic tags and the design of fractal antennas
  • Addresses special analog electronic circuits and systems such as phase-sensitive rectifiers, phase detectors, and IC thermometers

By explaining the "building blocks" of biomedical systems, the author illustrates the importance of signal conditioning systems in the devices that gather and monitor patients’ critical medical information. Fully revised and updated, this second edition includes new chapters, a glossary, and end-of-chapter problems.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Updated and revised material throughout the book
  • A chapter on the applications, circuits, and characteristics of power amplifiers
  • A chapter on wireless patient monitoring using UHF telemetry
  • A chapter on RFID tags, GPS tags, and ultrasonic tags
  • A glossary to help you decode the acronyms and terms used in biomedical electronics, physiology, and biochemistry
  • New end-of-chapter problems and examples

Table of Contents

All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.

Sources and Properties of Biomedical Signals

Sources of Endogenous Bioelectric Signals

Nerve Action Potentials

Muscle Action Potentials

The Electrocardiogram

Other Biopotentials

Electrical Properties of Bioelectrodes

Exogenous Bioelectric Signals

Properties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systems

pn Junction Diodes

Midfrequency Models for BJT Behavior

Midfrequency Models for Field-Effect Transistors

High-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor Amplifiers

Photons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Laser Diodes

The Differential Amplifier

DA Circuit Architecture

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio

CM and DM Gain of Simple DA Stages at High Frequencies

Input Resistance of Simple Transistor DAs

How Signal Source Impedance Affects the Low-Frequency CMRR

How Op Amps Can be Used to Make DAs for Medical Applications

General Properties of Electronic, Single-Loop Feedback Systems

Classification of Electronic Feedback Systems

Some Effects of Negative Voltage Feedback

Effects of Negative Current Feedback

Positive Voltage Feedback

Feedback, Frequency Response, and Amplifier Stability

Review of Amplifier Frequency Response

What Is Meant by Feedback System Stability

The Use of Root Locus in Feedback Amplifier Design

Use of Root-Locus in the Design of "Linear" Oscillators

Operational Amplifiers and Comparators

The Ideal Op Amp

Practical Op Amps

Gain-Bandwidth Relations for Voltage-Feedback OAs

Gain-Bandwidth Relations in Current Feedback Amplifiers

Analog Voltage Comparators

Some Applications of Op Amps in Biomedicine

Introduction to Analog Active Filters

Active Filter Applications

Types of Analog Active Filters

Electronically Tunable AFs

Instrumentation and Medical Isolation Amplifiers

Instrumentation Amps

Medical Isolation Amps

Safety Standards in Medical Electronic Amplifiers

Medical-Grade Power Supplies

Noise and the Design of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning Systems for Biomedical Applications

Descriptors of Random Noise in Biomedical Measurement Systems

Propagation of Noise Through LTI Filters

Noise Factor and Figure of Amplifiers

Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers

Noise in Differential Amplifiers

Effect of Feedback on Noise

Examples of Noise-Limited Resolution of Certain Signal Conditioning Systems

Some Low-Noise Amplifiers

The Art of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning System Design

Digital Interfaces

Aliasing and the Sampling Theorem

Digital-to-Analog Converters

Sample-and-Hold Circuits

Analog-to-Digital Converters

Quantization Noise

Modulation and Demodulation of Biomedical Signals

Modulation of a Sinusoidal Carrier Viewed in the Frequency Domain

Implementation of AM

Generation of Phase and Frequency Modulation

Demodulation of Modulated Sinusoidal Carriers

Modulation and Demodulation of Digital Carriers

Power Amplifiers and Their Applications in Biomedicine

Power Output Devices

Classes of Power Amplifiers: PA Efficiency

Class D Power Amplifiers

Nonlinearity and Distortion in PAs

IC Voltage Regulators in Medical Electronic Systems

Heatsinking

Wireless Patient Monitoring

Sensors and Sensor Signals Communicated in WPM

Modulation in WPM

RF Communications Protocols Used in WPM

UHF Transmitters and Antennas

WPM Systems

How WPM Reduces the Probability of Patient Microshock

Privacy in WPM

RFID Tags, GPS Tags, and Ultrasonic Tags Used in Ecological Research

Applications of RFID Tags

Design of RFID Tags

Tag Readers

GPS Tags

Ultrasonic Tags in Fisheries Biology

Examples of Special Analog Circuits and Systems Used in Biomedical Instrumentation

The Phase-Sensitive Rectifier

Phase Detectors

Voltage and Current-Controlled Oscillators

Phase-Lock Loops

True RMS Converters

IC Temperature Sensors

Three Examples of Medical Instrumentation Systems

Appendix

Glossary

Bibliography and Recommended Reading

About the Author

Robert B. Northrop is Professor Emeritus and the former Program Director of the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program at the University of Connecticut.

About the Series

Biomedical Engineering

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
SCI043000
SCIENCE / Research & Methodology
TEC008010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TEC061000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications
TEC064000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Sensors