2nd Edition

Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation

By Robert B. Northrop Copyright 2012
    578 Pages 411 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    578 Pages 411 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Analysis and Application of Analog Electronic Circuits to Biomedical Instrumentation, Second Edition helps biomedical engineers understand the basic analog electronic circuits used for signal conditioning in biomedical instruments. It explains the function and design of signal conditioning systems using analog ICs—the circuits that enable ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, tomographic images, biochemical spectrograms, and other crucial medical applications.

    This book demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning system design and illustrates how they can be used to build instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and many other biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It introduces the mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems, and it looks at how signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by signal averaging and linear filtering.


    • Analyzes the properties of photonic sensors and emitters and the circuits that power them
    • Details the design of instrumentation amplifiers and medical isolation amplifiers
    • Considers the modulation and demodulation of biomedical signals
    • Examines analog power amplifiers, including power op amps and class D (switched) PAs
    • Describes wireless patient monitoring, including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication protocols
    • Explores RFID, GPS, and ultrasonic tags and the design of fractal antennas
    • Addresses special analog electronic circuits and systems such as phase-sensitive rectifiers, phase detectors, and IC thermometers

    By explaining the "building blocks" of biomedical systems, the author illustrates the importance of signal conditioning systems in the devices that gather and monitor patients’ critical medical information. Fully revised and updated, this second edition includes new chapters, a glossary, and end-of-chapter problems.

    What’s New in This Edition

    • Updated and revised material throughout the book
    • A chapter on the applications, circuits, and characteristics of power amplifiers
    • A chapter on wireless patient monitoring using UHF telemetry
    • A chapter on RFID tags, GPS tags, and ultrasonic tags
    • A glossary to help you decode the acronyms and terms used in biomedical electronics, physiology, and biochemistry
    • New end-of-chapter problems and examples

    All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.

    Sources and Properties of Biomedical Signals
    Sources of Endogenous Bioelectric Signals
    Nerve Action Potentials
    Muscle Action Potentials
    The Electrocardiogram
    Other Biopotentials
    Electrical Properties of Bioelectrodes
    Exogenous Bioelectric Signals

    Properties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systems
    pn Junction Diodes
    Midfrequency Models for BJT Behavior
    Midfrequency Models for Field-Effect Transistors
    High-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor Amplifiers
    Photons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Laser Diodes

    The Differential Amplifier
    DA Circuit Architecture
    Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
    CM and DM Gain of Simple DA Stages at High Frequencies
    Input Resistance of Simple Transistor DAs
    How Signal Source Impedance Affects the Low-Frequency CMRR
    How Op Amps Can be Used to Make DAs for Medical Applications

    General Properties of Electronic, Single-Loop Feedback Systems

    Classification of Electronic Feedback Systems
    Some Effects of Negative Voltage Feedback
    Effects of Negative Current Feedback
    Positive Voltage Feedback

    Feedback, Frequency Response, and Amplifier Stability

    Review of Amplifier Frequency Response
    What Is Meant by Feedback System Stability
    The Use of Root Locus in Feedback Amplifier Design
    Use of Root-Locus in the Design of "Linear" Oscillators

    Operational Amplifiers and Comparators
    The Ideal Op Amp
    Practical Op Amps
    Gain-Bandwidth Relations for Voltage-Feedback OAs
    Gain-Bandwidth Relations in Current Feedback Amplifiers
    Analog Voltage Comparators
    Some Applications of Op Amps in Biomedicine

    Introduction to Analog Active Filters
    Active Filter Applications
    Types of Analog Active Filters
    Electronically Tunable AFs

    Instrumentation and Medical Isolation Amplifiers
    Instrumentation Amps
    Medical Isolation Amps
    Safety Standards in Medical Electronic Amplifiers
    Medical-Grade Power Supplies

    Noise and the Design of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning Systems for
    Biomedical Applications
    Descriptors of Random Noise in Biomedical Measurement Systems
    Propagation of Noise Through LTI Filters
    Noise Factor and Figure of Amplifiers
    Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers
    Noise in Differential Amplifiers
    Effect of Feedback on Noise
    Examples of Noise-Limited Resolution of Certain Signal Conditioning Systems
    Some Low-Noise Amplifiers
    The Art of Low-Noise Signal Conditioning System Design

    Digital Interfaces

    Aliasing and the Sampling Theorem
    Digital-to-Analog Converters
    Sample-and-Hold Circuits
    Analog-to-Digital Converters
    Quantization Noise

    Modulation and Demodulation of Biomedical Signals

    Modulation of a Sinusoidal Carrier Viewed in the Frequency Domain
    Implementation of AM
    Generation of Phase and Frequency Modulation
    Demodulation of Modulated Sinusoidal Carriers
    Modulation and Demodulation of Digital Carriers

    Power Amplifiers and Their Applications in Biomedicine

    Power Output Devices
    Classes of Power Amplifiers: PA Efficiency
    Class D Power Amplifiers
    Nonlinearity and Distortion in PAs
    IC Voltage Regulators in Medical Electronic Systems

    Wireless Patient Monitoring
    Sensors and Sensor Signals Communicated in WPM
    Modulation in WPM
    RF Communications Protocols Used in WPM
    UHF Transmitters and Antennas
    WPM Systems
    How WPM Reduces the Probability of Patient Microshock
    Privacy in WPM

    RFID Tags, GPS Tags, and Ultrasonic Tags Used in Ecological Research

    Applications of RFID Tags
    Design of RFID Tags
    Tag Readers
    GPS Tags
    Ultrasonic Tags in Fisheries Biology

    Examples of Special Analog Circuits and Systems Used in Biomedical Instrumentation

    The Phase-Sensitive Rectifier
    Phase Detectors
    Voltage and Current-Controlled Oscillators
    Phase-Lock Loops
    True RMS Converters
    IC Temperature Sensors
    Three Examples of Medical Instrumentation Systems


    Bibliography and Recommended Reading


    Robert B. Northrop is Professor Emeritus and the former Program Director of the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program at the University of Connecticut.