1st Edition

Analytical Impedance Spectroscopy Basics and Applications

    262 Pages 89 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book introduces the subject of impedance spectroscopy starting from fundamentals through to latest applications in areas such as ceramics, piezoelectric, sensors, agriculture, food quality control, medical diagnostics, cancer research, and so forth. Within the ambit of impedance spectroscopy, plots simulated for useful equivalent circuit models, design of sample holder, necessary precautions to be taken during measurement are described. It further discusses development of softwares for analysis of experimental data and choice of the most appropriate equivalent circuit model. All the materials are supported by problems, answers, appendices and references.


    • Includes fundamentals, equivalent circuit modeling and analysis of data related to impedance spectroscopy.
    • Presents experimental measurements in a nuts-and-bolts approach.
    • Includes derivation of expressions for some selected models and values of immittance functions as frequency of measurements tend to zero and to infinity.
    • Provides clear recipe for beginners for proceeding toward developing equivalent circuit models.
    • Describes computer program for complex nonlinear least squares fitting with example of program IMPSPEC.BAS

    This book is aimed at senior undergraduate/graduate students and researchers in materials engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, construction engineering, physics, chemistry, medical diagnostics, agriculture and dairy.

    1. Basic Ideas.  2. Concept of Impedance Spectroscopy, Various Immittance Functions and Equivalent Circuit Representation.  3. Experimental Measurements.  4. Equivalent Circuit Models and Their Simulated Immittance Behaviors.  5. Analysis of Experimental Data.  6. Applications.


    Lakshman Pandey, a physicist, has his BSc and MSc degrees from BHU, Varanasi and PhD from IIT Kanpur (1980). He has worked as Postdoctoral Fellow at Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (1980–1983), Visiting Scientist and Visiting Professor at Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (1984, 1986, 1990), Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) Associate Members at Brazilian Center for Physical Research, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2000, 2002), UGC Research Scientist at School of Materials Science & Technology, IIT(BHU) (1984–1989), Associate Professor (1989–1998) and Professor (1998–2018) at Department of Post Graduate Studies & Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, India. He has offered various courses in Physics, Electronics and Materials Science to MSc, MPhil, MTech, BTech and PhD students at Rani Durgavati University Jabalpur, School of Materials & Technology, IIT(BHU), and Indian Institute of Information Technology-Design and Manufacturing (IIIT- DM), Jabalpur. He has been Head of Department of Physics and Electronics (2002–2005), Dean of Faculty of Science of Rani Durgavati University (2005–2007), Member of Executive Council of Rani Durgavati University (2005–2007, 2013–2016), Chairman of Board of Studies in Physics and in Electronics (2002–2006), Prof-in-charge of University Science Instrumentation Centre (1999–2000), Member of Academic Senate of Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing (PDPM-IIITDM), Jabalpur (2005–2011). During his about 45 years of teaching and research career, he has worked on problems of theoretical and experimental nature including instrumentation and software development. He has worked in the areas of NMR in solids and gases (experiment, theory), NMR instrumentation, ferroelectrics, impedance spectroscopy, electronic ceramics, solidification, development of computer software, science concepts in ancient Sanskrit texts. He has been Associate Member of TWAS (2000–2006) and is Life Member of Materials Research Society of India (MRSI), Indian Institute of Metals (IIM), Indian Physics Association (IPA) and Luminescence Society of India (LSI). He is a founder member of a scientific organization "Mahakoshal Vigyan Parishad, Jabalpur". He has supervised 8 PhD students (including three on impedance spectroscopy), 12 MPhil, 4 MTech and 15 MSc dissertations. He designed and developed NMR sample probes for gaseous samples in IIT Kanpur and for piezoelectric solids in Canada. He has developed the computer software IMPSPEC.BAS for complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) and equivalent circuit modeling in impedance spectroscopy being widely used by his group.

    Devendra Kumar, a physicist and materials scientist (PhD from IIT Kanpur), was Professor and Head, Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, India. During his 35 years of Teaching and Research Career, he taught various courses on glass and ceramic technology and fabrication and characterization of advanced materials and developed many UG and PG Laboratories. His research areas include electroceramics (microwave dielectrics, glass ceramics dielectrics, varistors, solid oxide fuel cells), bioceramics (structural and spectroscopic characterization), metal matrix composites (structural and mechanical and electrochemical characterization). Prof. Devendra Kumar has published more than 280 research articles with good citations. He guided 26 PhD and 86 MTech students. He is a fellow of Institution of Engineers and Indian Institute of Ceramics. He has served at various national-level committees and has connection with various glass and ceramic industries. He is Member Research Council, CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, Chairman, Advisory Committee, CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Khurja Centre, Khurja (UP), Member, Expert Committee; Mining, Minerals, Metals and Materials (4M), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, Convener, Flat and Coated Glass Subcommittee, CHD 10:6 of Glass, Glassware and Laboratory Ware Sectional Committee, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi and Member Governing Council, Center for Development for Glass Industries, Firozabad (UP).

    Om Parkash, a physical chemist and materials scientist (PhD from IIT Kanpur), was Professor and Head of Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi. He was a research associate in Lehigh University (USA) for one year (1988–1989). During his 39 years of teaching and research career behavior, he has published more than 250 papers, which are well cited. He has guided 20 PhD and 60 MTech students. He developed and taught various UG and PG courses on synthesis, characterization and electrical, magnetic, dielectric and corrosion behavior of metals, ceramics and polymers. His research areas include electronic ceramics (electrical, dielectric and magnetic properties of rare earth transition metal oxide perovskites, varistors, glass ceramics, polymer matrix ceramic composites and dielectrics), solid electrolyte for intermediate and low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, metal-matrix composites (structural, mechanical and electrochemical behavior). He was a member of Advisory Committees (Materials, Mining and Mineral Engineering; Physics and Mathematical Sciences for Women Scientists Scheme) of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for 15 years. He is a fellow of Indian Institute of Ceramics and life member of Materials Research Society of India. He has been using impedance spectroscopy extensively for development of ceramics.

    Shukdev Pandey did his Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Telecommunication from Rajeev Gandhi Technical University, Bhopal in 2010. He did his Master of Technology in Ceramic Engineering from IIT (BHU), Varanasi in 2012. Thereafter, he completed his Doctor of Philosophy in Ceramic Engineering from IIT (BHU), Varanasi in 2018. His PhD thesis title is "Structural, Electrical and Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Sr2+, Fe3+ and Sn4+ doped BaTiO3 Ceramics". His research areas include preparation and structural, electrical and magnetic characterization of electronic ceramic materials, microwave dielectric measurements, applications of electronic materials in development of microwave components, analytical modeling, design and simulation of rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA), equivalent circuit modeling and impedance spectroscopy. He has published seven research papers and contributed an invited book chapter titled "Impedance Spectroscopy: A Powerful Technique for Study of Electronic Ceramics" in Ceramic Materials – Synthesis, Characterization, Applications and Recycling, Dolores Eliche Quesada, Luis Perez Villarejo and Pedro Sanchez Soto (eds). He has extensively worked with Prof. Devendra Kumar, Prof. Om Parkash and Prof. L. Pandey on impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuit modeling. Presently he is working as a research scientist, Industrial Research and Consultancy Centre, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India.