1st Edition

Appearance and Identity Crisis in Modern Indian History The Third Design (1857 A.D. – 2014 A.D.)

By Jeevan Jyoti Chakarawarti Copyright 2025
    160 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Chakarawarti explores the history of Indian eunuchs, from the Mughal empire's fall following the Mutiny of 1857 to the Supreme Court of India's historic ruling in 2014.

    This book examines the social, political, economic and religious aspects of Indian eunuchs’ lives, providing a true narrative of this marginalised group that has been neglected for centuries. It contains detailed stories of Indian eunuchs from the 1857 uprising to the historic decision to grant them the title of third gender in the Supreme Court of India in 2014. This includes the actual account of the court proceedings and how this decision brought about an enormous transition to their lives by granting them fundamental rights under the Constitution of India and the right to self-identification of their gender as male, female or third gender.

    An important resource for scholars of Gender Studies, Transgender Studies and Subaltern History, especially those interested in the Third Design in modern Indian history.

    Table of Contents


    Chapter 1. Prelusion


    Chapter 2. Post Mughal Socio-Economic Dimensions


    Chapter 3. Struggle against Identity Crisis and Aspersion in British India


    Chapter 4. Society, Religion and Cultural Consonance


    Chapter 5. Post Independence Challenges, Constitutional Recognition and The Real World


    Chapter 6. Epilogue


    Jeevan Jyoti Chakarawarti pursued his Honorary Doctorate in History at S.K.M. University, Dumka, Jharkhand, Bharat, India. He currently holds the post of Principal of Upgraded Government Plus Two High School, Taljhari, Dumka in the Indian state of Jharkhand under School Education and Literacy Department, Government of Jharkhand. Chakarawarti has also served in St Xavier's College, Maharo, Dumka (Jharkhand) as Assistant Professor of History. His most recent publication is the critically acclaimed ‘The Kiss of Mask: Subaltern Tales of COVID-19’.