Due to the requirements of automatic system design, and new needs for the training of complex tasks, Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) has been used with increasing frequency in recent years by the airline industry and air traffic control community. Its power is reflected in the literature on professional training and systems design, where CTA is often cited as one of the most promising new technologies, especially for the complex cognitive tasks now confronting those working in aviation. The objective of this book is to bridge the gap between research and practice, to make what we know about CTA available to practitioners in the field. The book focuses on cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence analyses of aviation tasks. It is designed to help readers identify and solve specific design and training problems, in the flight deck, air traffic control and operations contexts. Distilling experience and guidelines from the best aviation cognitive analyses in accessible form, it is the first comprehensive volume on CTA, and is written for practitioners of cognitive analysis in aviation. It provides an overview of analyses to date; methods of data collection; and recommendations for designing and conducting CTA for use in instructional design, systems development, and evaluation. The first part of the book provides the principles and foundations of CTA, describing traditional approaches to task analysis and ways that cognitive analyses can be integrated with the analysis and development processes. The next part details how to: select the appropriate method or methods; determine job tasks that can be trained for automatic performance; extract knowledge structures; analyse mental models; and identify the decision-making and problem-solving strategies associated with experienced job performance. The authors also describe when to use and how to design and conduct a cognitive task analysis; how to use CTA along with traditional task analysis and ISD; and how to use CTA in training program development and systems design, as well as in personnel selection and evaluation. The current demand for cognitive analyses makes this a timely volume for those in aviation and, more generally, the industrial development and training communities. Readers will find this a thorough presentation of cognitive analyses in aviation and a highly usable guide in the design, implementation and interpretation of CTA. The book will be useful to instructional developers, aviation equipment and systems designers, researchers, government regulatory personnel, human resource managers, instructors, pilots, air traffic controllers, and operations staff.
Table of Contents
Contents: Introduction to Cognitive Task Analysis: Introduction; When to use cognitive task analysis; Designing cognitive task analysis; Methods of cognitive task analysis. Cognitive Task Analysis Methods in Context: Determining aviation knowledge; Determining automated skills; Determining procedural skills; Determining representational skills; Determining decision making skills; Determining high-level strategies. Using Cognitive Task Analysis Results: The cognitive task analysis report; Training design; System design; Human resource management; Challenges and future directions for cognitive task analysis in aviation; Glossary; References; Index.
Thomas L. Seamster received his Ph.D. in instructional systems technology from Indiana University, USA. He currently is the senior research scientist at Cognitive and Human Factors (Santa Fe, USA) directing the cognitive modelling of air traffic controller and aircrew performance. He has directed US government R&D projects and published in the areas of user interface research and development, training systems analysis and development, and the analysis of expertise. He also is a consulting editor for the International Journal of Aviation Psychology. Richard E. Redding has ten years R & D experience in cognitive task analysis in aviation, serving as a principle scientist or project director for major US government training development projects for air traffic controllers and combat aircrews. As the most published author in the world on using cognitive task analysis for training design, his work is widely cited. He recently was a visiting fellow at the University of Southern Queensland, Australia, lecturing and consulting on cognitive task analysis. He holds a Juris Doctor degree from Washington and Lee University, USA, a M.S. degree from Vanderbilt University, USA and is a doctoral candidate in psychology at the University of Virginia, where he is also an instructor. He has published over 20 journal articles and book chapters plus numerous published conference proceedings, government technical reports and conference presentations on cognitive task analysis. George F. Kaempf has over 10 years experience as a senior scientist or principle investigator on major US government research and development projects in flight simulator training, aircrew training, crew resource management, and decision support systems. He is currently Manager of Human Interface Engineering, Sun Microsystems Inc., California, USA. Previous to this, he was a senior research associate at Klein Association Inc., USA, where he was responsible for research on cognitive aspects of expert and team performance and for developing training and decision support interventions. He holds MS and PhD degrees in experimental psychology from Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
’...a practical and accessible introduction and guide to CTA...informative and well illustrated.’ Air Traffic Control Association, USA