Applied Crowd Science  book cover
1st Edition

Applied Crowd Science

  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after December 22, 2021
ISBN 9781138626560
December 22, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
304 Pages 59 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Applied Crowd Science outlines the theory and applications of the crowd safety course that Prof. Keith Still has developed and taught worldwide for over thirty years. It includes the background and applications of the crowd risk assessment tools, as well as essays and case studies from international users (UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia, Holland, Belgium and Japan). Keith’s courses are mandatory training for all UK Police Public Event Commanders. 

The text covers legislation and guidance for crowd safety in places of public assembly, and outlines the requirements of a crowd risk assessment for mass gatherings. It draws on Prof. Still’s expert witness experience, highlighting both the problems you need to understand for your event planning. 

Table of Contents

1. Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
2. The Dim-Ice Risk Model
3. Crowd Dynamics
4. Crowd Modelling
5. Ramp Analysis
6. Crowd Counting
7. Control Room Information
8. Queueing Systems
9. Crowd Risk Analysis
10. Event Egress Analysis
11. Strategic and Tactical Analysis
12. Emergency Situations
13. Summary
14. Crowd Science Essay’s
15. Selected Case Studies Using Crowd Science
16. Crowd Science and Covid 19
17. The Future

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Prof. Keith Still has been consulted on the world’s largest and most challenging crowd safety projects. He was consulted on crowd safety for the Annual Pilgrimage to Makkah (Hajj), Olympic events the UK Royal Wedding, international festivals and mass gatherings. His opinion is sought by government and safety regulators around the world. He develops and teaches crowd safety and crowd risk analysis courses from Level 3 through to Level 7 (MSc). 


"Dr. Still was able to analyse the planning and layout of the concert and determine that the concert promoter had deviated from the life safety plan without notifying the proper authorities. Shortly after receiving Dr. Still’s report, the defendants elected to settle the case." Raymond R. Dieppa, FLORIDA LEGAL, LLC.


"Professor Still is the world's leading expert in crowd science. His first book on the subject is the foundation for an entire industry. This book develops his work even further and by using the contents and frameworks contained within this latest fantastic piece of work, organisers around the world will make their mass gatherings safer. For all crowd science and crowd safety practitioners, make sure this book is top of your reading list as we move into a post-Covid world." D. Smyth, Founder and CEO of Sword Group


"I needed someone who could teach the higher echelon of the Indian Police Service about the science behind crowd management. . . . Thankfully, Professor Keith Still agreed to impart his phenomenal knowledge on dealing with crowds to the course and his presentation has since become a key feature. It is safe to say that Keith is one of, if not the world leader, in defining the considerations relating to potential crowded places, planned or otherwise. One can only speculate as to the thousands of lives that have been saved due to Keith’s work and not one of those individuals realises." Graham M. Sunderland, QPM, MA


"The danger for police commanders in planning and dealing with major events is that we become focussed on one area, normally public order, when in fact we should be considering a range of overlapping and inter-related disciplines of which crowd science should be writ large. An awareness of the area should be a prerequisite for those policing events and commanders should be able to recognise risk at events and utilise the available specialists in appropriate circumstances. I can think of one high-profile football match . . . where I was glad issues of crowd science were in my considerations as there was clear potential for a serious incident if the wrong calls had been made. Consequently, in planning for this year’s Manchester United victory parade, one of my first calls was to Keith Still to ensure I had his support in reviewing the issues around crowd science – a previous parade had attracted 250,000 fans and there had been a real risk of people getting seriously hurt. In this case, Keith's involvement gave me the reassurance that the issues would be recognised and that we could develop the right plans and mitigation measures." Mark Roberts. Chief Superintendent. Trafford Division. Greater Manchester Police


In April 2018 the College of Policing introduced mandatory training in policing events for all Public Order / Public Safety commanders and their advisors. This new training was developed by working closely with Professor Keith Still. This enabled the training to provide commanders and advisors a full day of crowd science content, giving them knowledge and understanding of key crowd science tools before providing the opportunity to test their learning in bespoke scenarios. The understanding of crowd science, developed by completing the course, enables commanders and advisors to recognise potential crowd safety issues at the planning stage of an operation, which in turn allows them to highlight any risk and where appropriate put measures in place to mitigate it. Crucially this training, and the learning standards it sets, comes at a time when policing is reviewing its role at public events. Police commanders now recognise the importance of critically reviewing the plans of event organisers, and where necessary articulating concerns regarding crowd safety management to other stakeholders in the event licensing process. What they learn from the ‘Events Module’ supports them in that role. In the months since the ‘Events Module’ was introduced hundreds of police commanders and advisors have successfully passed the four-day course, and the feedback from those attending it has been positive.  By April 2019 all strategic, tactical, and operational commanders across England and Wales, and those advising them, will have completed this course. UK College of Policing


"The UK College of Policing has maintained its professional standards of training delivery with the assistance of Keith Still, utilising his knowledge and understanding in the area of advanced crowd science. Keith has assisted the College for many years and more recently with professional opinion relating to the easing of lockdowns." Steven Johnston MSc (Ed). POPS Licensing and Accreditation Manager. Public Order Public Safety Team. Uniform Policing Faculty


"The most common feedback from the course was that the Police commanders felt much more confident in assessing crowd risks, and what questions to ask the event organiser. I genuinely enjoy delivering the material and trying to pass your ethos across. Thanks again, on behalf of the Police." PC Reed, Public Event Commanders course trainer


"We have great respect for the decades you have spent researching and expanding the bounds of crowd science. So many of the enhanced crowd risk analysis techniques used today are from your pioneering work. In 2021, NCS4 formed a strategic partnership with Crowd Risk Analysis Ltd and world-renowned crowd science expert Professor Dr. G. Keith Still to offer a crowd safety management course to the North American market." NCS4 at The University of Southern Mississippi (USM)


"Thank you so very much for the best 3 days of learning that I have spent in sometime! I also enjoyed the collaboration with my fellow classmates. We need to expand and carry this forward throughout our sports/entertainment profession." Shannan Tiffin, Captain of Support Services/Emergency Management at Duke University Police Department


Shannan found the workshop to be very beneficial. "There is not a lot out there about crowd behaviour and psychology," said Tiffin. "The workshop provided us with a simplified approach to understanding the behaviours of how people act, and ingress and egress from a venue or stadium." NCS4 at The University of Southern Mississippi (USM)


Rebecca Wilusz, Associate Director of Game Operations & Champion at Duke University Athletics, agrees with Tiffin. "Keith has done a great job of making the information accessible – I have left the workshop with both simple and effective tools to be able to build better plans and train our athletics staff more efficiently. NCS4 at The University of Southern Mississippi (USM)



Dear Prof. Still. We would like to take this opportunity to highlight our satisfaction for the outstanding work of the team who took the tight schedule and worked closely with our team to complete the project effectively in a very short time frame. We are absolutely satisfied with the hard work, dedication and professionalism the team showed during the project to provide committed services with the committed quality to the client. Even with the time pressure, the quality of their work and the attention to detail was exactly we were looking for. We wish you and your team continued success and hope that in future we can generate more fruitful projects together.

Onur İlköz Direktör, İş Geliştirme ve Stratejik Planlama. Director, Business Development and Strategic Planning. Sensormatic Güvenlik Hizmetleri A.Ş.



"On a personal basis it allowed me to confidently state my case with a client why such safety measures where required. It was a completely new event site and when the ‘Flamming Lips’ came on stage we had a robust crowd management plan in place with crowd spotters deployed. I needed every bit of your course and not sure the outcome if I hadn’t attended, probably, like everyone else, we would have crossed our fingers!" Jonathan Cunningham MBE. Managing Director. STORM Consultancy



"A fantastic and beneficial course, it was the only course I had ever done where I was upset when it finished, the course provides a unique and mathematical approach to crowd engineering, the consensus of all who attended was that it provided us with the tools and confidence to do our job" Operations Manager. Sydney Opera House




"This course opens your eyes to the potential issues with Mass Gatherings. As well as providing an individual with the tools and knowledge to assess the event plans and proposed mitigation for major events. With the introduction of the Crowd Science Qualification, it would be in your best interest to attend. The delivery and information provided is beyond reproach and glad to see the course in Australia!" CEO. Canberra Exhibition Park




SXSW Music is one of the largest music festivals in the United States, with more than 2,000 performers playing in more than 90 venues. SXSW is the highest revenue-producing event for the Austin (Texas, USA) economy, with an estimated economic impact of $167 million in 2011.


"The City of Austin is host to several mass gatherings that include music festivals, collegiate sporting events, and holiday celebrations. Dr. Still’s Crowd workshops provided tools and insights that will improve my ability to predict potential issues, create plans to address the predicted issues and manage the crowds that these events bring; ultimately creating safer events for our citizens. If you are responsible for the management of large gatherings, I would recommend this workshop for you and your team." Pete DiDonato, Division Chief, Austin-Travis County Emergency Medical Services, Austin Texas USA


Prof. Still's workshop gave us valuable, specific, practical information that we could use in many ways to improve our event. It was presented in a fantastic way using talks, videos, exercises, and discussions that really brought the group together. We had 30 people, half from our organization and half were various City first responders (Fire, Police, EMS). One of the best things that happened was getting to go through two three-day workshops with all these people that you talk with for maybe 30 minutes at most. The team building and connections that Prof. Still's workshop offered were worth it on their own. But in addition, a whole team of people got the knowledge and the lens through which to view crowd management and engagement in the most beneficial and practical way possible. It was fantastic. Brad Spies (SXSW), Austin, Texas.



"Keith is an inspirational mathematician and is technically brilliant. For somebody to have an idea, pursue it, do a PhD based on that idea, start a company again based on that idea and then do consultancy all around the world because of it, is nothing short of genius. Dr Nira Chamberlain FIMA FORS CSci PhD HonDSc. Professional Head of Discipline. President of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications




"Keith brings a truly unique level of commitment and insight to a subject - crowd science and crowd risk analysis - which is increasingly high profile in the events market. Major Event organisers and hosts face increasing regulatory and consumer pressure to deliver properly managed crowds and the safest possible experience for spectators and participants at mass gathering. Keith has worked on many of the World's highest profile mass participation events - from Olympic Games to the Hajj and from major transport terminals to some of the largest music festivals. In each case, he applies immense clarity of thought, advanced mathematical thinking, and an ability to explain the most complex crowd modelling to a wide range of stake holder organisations. If you are expecting a crowd, planning a crowd or want to under­stand what happened to a crowd, there is no-one better to contact. And Keith will always move heaven and earth to give you actionable observations and advice." Ian Horseman Sewell




"I have had the pleasure of working with Keith Still over the past five years and I have enjoyed working with him. He brings a truly unique level of commitment and insight to a subject - crowd dynamics & management - which is increasingly high profile in the events market. His enthusiasm and desire to educate is infectious and he has personally done more for the subject matter of Crowd Science than anyone else I can think of. Major Event organisers and hosts face increasing regulatory and consumer pressure to deliver properly managed crowd s and the safest possible experience for spectators and participants at mass gathering. Keith's skill, expertise and ability to model the most complex systems for clients make the work he is doing invaluable. Keith has worked on many of the World 's highest profile mass participation events - from Olympic Games to the Hajj and from major transport hubs to some of the largest music festivals. In each case, he applies immense clarity of thought, advanced mathematical thinking and an ability to explain the most complex crowd model ling to a wide range of stake holder organisations. If you, or your organisation need help and advice in dealing with large crowds, or you only want a sounding board to challenge your thinking then I can highly recommend Keith." Jon Wort



"I would like to express our sincere gratitude for your kind assistance in the Jamarat Bridge Project. The professional level of performance, the clarity of presentation and the solid results supported by scientific evidence were the main element of the success of our undertaking. We also appreciate the time you gave us during your visit to Saudi Arabia to train our staff, a gesture which proved to be of great benefit to all those involved in the project. While we look forward to your next visit to Jeddah for phase III of the project, we wish you a very fruitful future, as we’ve seen how your techniques can solve a great number of our planning problems, here in the Middle East, and especially in the Gulf area." Dr. Hisham A. S. Jomah GM Technical advisor for special projects. Urban Development Company, Saudi Arabia



"Prof. Keith Still is leading specialist in crowd science and crowd risk analysis. his lectures were both highly informative and enjoyable. Every time professional opinion was required, Keith did not hesitate in providing quality answers and tips. I could not highly recommend Keith expertise in crowd safety management and crowd science. It is absolute pleasure to know Prof. Keith Still." Lukasz J Nalewaj FdA



"Prof. Dr. G. Keith Still has developed a unique method of predicting crowd behaviour enabling event organisers and Police to test crowd management plans to a high degree without the need for large-scale stage-managed test events. The software he has developed simulates crowd behaviour as it interacts with the geography of the space they occupy as well as behaviour generated by an action or event. I would urge any organiser, safety, stewarding, security company, or Police service to engage his services." Richard Strudwick M.SEC .I.I.