Architecture in Development
Systems and the Emergence of the Global South
- Available for pre-order. Item will ship after March 23, 2022
This extensive text investigates how architects, planners, and other related experts responded to the contexts and discourses of “development” after WWII. Development theory did not manifest itself in tracts of economic and political theory alone. It manifested itself in every sphere of expression where economic predicaments might be seen to impinge on cultural factors. Architecture appears in development discourse as a terrain between culture and economics, in that practitioners took on the mantle of modernist expression while also acquiring government contracts and immersing themselves in bureaucratic processes. This book considers how, for a brief period, architects, planners, structural engineers, and various practitioners of the built environment employed themselves in designing all the intimate spheres of life, but from a consolidated space of expertise. Seen in these terms, development was, to cite Arturo Escobar, an immense design project itself, one that requires radical disassembly and rethinking beyond the umbrella terms of “global modernism” and “colonial modernities” that risk erasing the sinews of conflict encountered in globalizing and modernizing architecture.
Encompassing countries as diverse as Israel, Ghana, Greece, Belgium, France, India, Mexico, the United States, Venezuela, the Philippines, South Korea, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, Zambia, and Canada, the set of essays in this book cannot be considered exhaustive, nor a “field-guide” in the traditional sense. Instead, it offers theoretical reflections “from the field,” based on extensive archival research, to a growing area of research. This book sets out to examine the arrays of power, resources, technologies, networking, and knowledge that cluster around the term of development, and the manner in which architects and planners negotiated these thickets in their multiple capacities, as knowledge experts, as technicians, as negotiators, and as occasional authorities on settlements, space, domesticity, education, health, and every other field where arguments for development were made.
Table of Contents
Arindam Dutta, Ateya Khorakiwala, Ayala Levin, Fabiola López-Durán, and Ijlal Muzaffar for Aggregate
Part I. Developmental Time
- Incompletion: On More Than a Certain Tendency in Postwar Architecture and Planning
- God’s Gamble: Self-Help Architecture and the Housing of Risk
- Planning for an Uncertain Present: Action Planning in Singapore, India, Israel, and Sierra Leone
- To Which Revolution? The National School of Agriculture and the Center for the Improvement of Corn and Wheat in Texcoco and El Batán, Mexico, 1924–1968
- From Rice Research to Coconut Capital
- "The City as a Housing Project": Training for Human Settlements at the Leuven PGCHS in the 1970s–1980s
Sebastiaan Loosen with Viviana d’Auria and Hilde Heynen
- Architectures of the Governed: Pastoral Technics and the Center for Environmental Structure
- The Technical State: Programs, Positioning, and the Integration of Architects in Political Society in Mexico, 1945–1955
Albert José-Antonio López
- "Foreigners in Filmmaking"
Felicity D. Scott
- The Making of Architectural Design as Sŏlgye: Integrating Science, Industry, and Expertise in Postwar Korea
Melany Sun-Min Park
- Infrastructures of Dependency: US Steel’s Architectural Assemblages on Indigenous Lands
Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió
- Reinventing Earth Architecture in the Age of Development
- Globalizing the Village: Development Media, Jaqueline Tyrwhitt, and the United Nations in India
- "Ruralizing" Zambia: Doxiadis Associates’ Systems-Based Planning and Developmentalism in the Nonindustrialized South
- Food Capital: Fantasies of Abundance and Nelson Rockefeller’s Architectures of Development in Venezuela, 1940s–1960s
- The Jewish Agency’s Open Cowsheds: Israeli Third Way Rural Design, 1956–1968
- Floors and Ceilings: The Architectonics of Accumulation in the Green Revolution
- Policy Regionalism and the Limits of Translation in Land Economics
- Leisure and Geo-Economics: The Hilton and Other Development Regimes in the Mediterranean South
- Antiparochì and (Its) Architects: Greek Architectures in Failure
Part II. Expertise
Part III. Bureaucratic Organization
Part IV. Technological Transfer
Part V. Designing the Rural
Part VI. Land
The Aggregate Architectural History Collaborative is dedicated to advancing research and education in the history and theory of architecture. Since 2006, Aggregate has held dozens of workshops and symposia throughout North America in partnership with major universities, exhibitions, and research centers. Aggregate presents innovative scholarship on its website we-aggregate.org and has published the collected volumes Governing by Design: Architecture, Economy, and Politics in the Twentieth Century (2012) and Writing Architectural History: Evidence and Narrative in the Twenty-First Century (2021).
Architecture in Development is edited for Aggregate by Arindam Dutta, Professor of Architectural History and Theory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ateya Khorakiwala, Assistant Professor at the Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation; Ayala Levin, Associate Professor in the Department of Architecture and Urban Design at University of California, Los Angeles; Fabiola López-Durán, Associate Professor of Art and Architectural History at Rice University; and Ijlal Muzaffar, Associate Professor of Modern Architectural History at the Rhode Island School of Design.
"Brilliantly questioning the figure of "development" that haunts modernism, Aggregate gets down to the dirt of the Bretton-Woods world: the entanglement of architectural discourse in food insecurity and mining infrastructures, debt servicing and dictators, supply chains of materials and expertise. A must-read for architectural thinkers."
Swati Chattopadhyay, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
"This timely book addresses a major blind spot in contemporary architectural scholarship: the central role of the design disciplines in the processes of modern, postcolonial development in creating the exclusions and inequalities of our time."
Fernando Lara, Potter Rose Professorship, University of Texas at Austin, USA