2nd Edition

Analysis and Evaluation

ISBN 9781138225084
Published November 15, 2016 by Routledge
184 Pages

USD $59.95

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

This book concentrates on argumentation as it emerges in ordinary discourse, whether the discourse is institutionalized or strictly informal. Crucial concepts from the theory of argumentation are systematically discussed and explained with the help of examples from real-life discourse and texts. The basic principles are explained that are instrumental in the analysis and evaluation of argumentative discourse. Methodical instruments are offered for identifying differences of opinion, analyzing and evaluating argumentation and presenting arguments in oral and written discourse. Attention is also paid to the way in which arguers attempt to be not just reasonable, but effective as well, by maneuvering strategically. In addition, the book provides a great variety of exercises and assignments to improve the student’s skill in presenting argumentation.

The authors begin their treatment of argumentation theory at the same juncture where argumentation also starts in practice: The difference of opinion that occasions the evolvement of the argumentation. Each chapter begins with a short summary of the essentials and ends with a number of exercises that students can use to master the material. Argumentation is the first introductory textbook of this kind. It is intended as a general introduction for students who are interested in a proper conduct of argumentative discourse. Suggestions for further reading are made for each topic and several extra assignments are added to the exercises.

Special features:

• A concise and complete treatment of both the theoretical backgrounds and the practice of argumentation analysis and evaluation.

• Crucial concepts from pragmatics (speech act theory, Grice’s cooperative principle) presented in a non-technical way; introducing the theory of verbal communication.

• The first textbook treatment of strategic maneuvering as a way of balancing being reasonable with being effective

• Exercises and assignments based on real-life texts from a variety of contexts.

Table of Contents



1 Standpoints and differences of opinion


1.1 Discussion and disagreement

1.2 Explicit and implicit differences of opinion

1.3 Positive and negative standpoints

1.4 Standpoints and expressions of doubt

1.5 Types of differences of opinion

1.6 Main differences of opinion and subordinate differences of opinion

1.7 The presentation of standpoints and doubt

Further reading


Special assignment 1

2 Argumentation and discussion


2.1 Resolving a difference of opinion

2.2 Argumentative discourse and having a critical discussion

2.3 The ideal model of a critical discussion

2.4 Argumentation in a critical discussion

Further reading


3 The presentation of argumentation


3.1 Identifying the standpoint

3.2 Indicators of argumentation

3.3 Clues in the context

3.4 Additional means of identifying argumentation

3.5 Explanation, elaboration and clarification

3.6 A maximally argumentative interpretation

Further reading


4 Unexpressed standpoints and unexpressed premises


4.1 Unexpressed elements in argumentative discourse

4.2 Indirectness and the rules for communication

4.3 Correctness conditions for speech acts

4.4 Violations of the communication rules

4.5 Variants of indirectness

4.6 Making unexpressed standpoints explicit

4.7 Making unexpressed premises explicit

4.8 Unexpressed premises in a well-defined context

Further reading


5 The argumentation structure


5.1 Single arguments

5.2 Combinations of single arguments

5.3 Multiple, coordinative, and subordinative argumentation

5.4 Representing the argumentation structure schematically

5.5 The presentation of complex argumentation

5.6 A maximally argumentative analysis

5.7 Unexpressed premises and complex argumentation

5.8 Composing an analytic overview

Further reading


Special assignments 2, 3, 4, 5

6 The soundness of argumentation


6.1 Evaluating argumentative discourse

6.2 The acceptability of argumentative statements

6.3 The validity of the reasoning

6.4 The soundness of argument schemes

6.5 Argumentation based on a symptomatic relation

6.6 Argumentation based on a relation of analogy

6.7 Argumentation based on a causal relation

6.8 The presentation of different types of argumentation

Further reading


7 Fallacies as violations of discussion rules 1-5


7.1 Fallacies and discussion rules

7.2 Violations of the freedom rule

7.3 Violations of the burden-of-proof rule

7.4 Violations of the standpoint rule

7.5 Violations of the relevance rule

7.6 Violations of the unexpressed premise rule

Further reading


8 Fallacies as violations of discussion rules 6-10


8.1 The conclusive defense of standpoints

8.2 Violations of the starting point rule

8.3 Violations of the validity rule

8.4 Violations of the argument scheme rule

8.5 Violations of the closure rule

8.6 Violations of the usage rule

Further reading


Special assignment 6

9 Strategic manoeuvring


9.1 Reconciling reasonableness and effectiveness

9.2 Three aspects of strategic manoeuvring

9.3 Rhetorical analogues of dialectical aims

9.4 Various kinds of argumentative strategies

9.5 Fallacies as derailments of strategic manoeuvring

9.6 The treacherous character of fallacious strategic manoeuvring

Further reading


Special assignment 7

10 The conventionalization of communicative activity types


10.1 Communicative activity types

10.2 Argumentative characterization of communicative activity types

10.3 Institutional preconditions for strategic manoeuvring

10.4 Different implementations of critical questions

Further reading


Special assignment 8


Overview of rules for critical discussion and fallacies

General references

View More



A. Francisca Sn Henkemans

Frans H. van Eemeren