1st Edition

Artificial Intelligence and International Conflict in Cyberspace

    278 Pages 4 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This edited volume explores how artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming international conflict in cyberspace.

    Over the past three decades, cyberspace developed into a crucial frontier and issue of international conflict. However, scholarly work on the relationship between AI and conflict in cyberspace has been produced along somewhat rigid disciplinary boundaries and an even more rigid sociotechnical divide – wherein technical and social scholarship are seldomly brought into a conversation. This is the first volume to address these themes through a comprehensive and cross-disciplinary approach. With the intent of exploring the question ‘what is at stake with the use of automation in international conflict in cyberspace through AI?’, the chapters in the volume focus on three broad themes, namely: (1) technical and operational, (2) strategic and geopolitical and (3) normative and legal. These also constitute the three parts in which the chapters of this volume are organised, although these thematic sections should not be considered as an analytical or a disciplinary demarcation.

    This book will be of much interest to students of cyber-conflict, AI, security studies and International Relations.

    The Open Access version of this book is available for free in PDF format as Open Access from the individual product page at www.routledge.com. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.

    1. Artificial Intelligence and International Conflict in Cyberspace: Exploring Three Sets of Issues

    Fabio Cristiano, Dennis Broeders, François Delerue, Frédérick Douzet and Aude Géry

    Part I: Conceptual and Operational Challenges

    2. The Unknowable Conflict: Tracing AI, Recognition, and the Death of the (Human) Loop

    Andrew C. Dwyer

    3. Artificial Intelligence in Hybrid and Information Warfare: A Double-Edged Sword

    Wesley R. Moy and Kacper T. Gradon

    Part II: Strategic and Geopolitical Challenges

    4. Algorithmic Power? The Role of Artificial Intelligence in European Strategic Autonomy

    Simona R. Soare

    5. The Middleware Dilemma of Middle Powers: AI-Enabled Services as Sites of Cyber Conflict In Brazil, India, and Singapore

    Arun Mohan Sukumar

    6. Artificial Intelligence and Military Superiority: How the ‘Cyber-AI Offensive-Defensive Arms Race’ Affects the US Vision of the Fully Integrated Battlefield

    Jeppe T. Jacobsen and Tobias Liebetrau

    Part III: Normative and Legal Challenges

    7. Ethical Principles for Artificial Intelligence in the Defence Domain

    Mariarosaria Taddeo, David McNeish, Alexander Blanchard and Elizabeth Edgar

    8. Is Stuxnet the Next Skynet? Autonomous Cyber Capabilities as Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

    Louis Perez

    9. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Techniques and the Principle of Non-Intervention in the Context of Electoral Interference: A Challenge to the "Demanding" Element of Coercion?

    Jack Kenny


    Fabio Cristiano is an Assistant Professor of Conflict Studies at Utrecht University, where he teaches in the MA in Conflict Studies & Human Rights and the Minor in Conflict Studies. He is an Associate Fellow of The Hague Program on International Cyber Security at Leiden University and holds a PhD in Political Science from Lund University.

    Dennis Broeders is a Full Professor of Global Security and Technology at the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) of Leiden University, the Netherlands. He is the Senior Fellow of The Hague Program on International Cyber Security and project coordinator at the EU Cyber Direct Program.

    François Delerue is an Assistant Professor of Law and a member of the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence for Law and Automation (Lawtomation) at IE University. His book Cyber Operations and International Law was published in 2020.

    Frédérick Douzet is a Professor of Geopolitics at the University of Paris 8, Director of the French Institute of Geopolitics research team (IFG Lab) and Director of the Center Geopolitics of the Datasphere (GEODE). She has been a senior member of the Institut Universitaire de France since 2022 and a member of the French Defense Ethics Committee since 2020.

    Aude Géry is a Post-doctoral Fellow at GEODE. She also co-chaired the Committee on Digital Challenges for International Law set up for the 150-year anniversary of the International Law Association.

    "An impressive and much-needed cross-disciplinary assessment of the adoption of AI-enabled cyber capabilities, Artificial Intelligence and International Conflict in Cyberspace offers an expertly edited, nuanced, and ultimately cautionary view on the rising intersections of AI and cyberspace. The volume brings technical and social science scholarship together into conversations over the potential and perils of AI as an object and subject for cyber threats, as a strategic asset to be acquired (and threatened) by great and middling powers alike, and as a technology whose development demands ethical and legal boundaries even as those boundaries may shift via iterations in AI’s deployment by states and other stakeholders. Simply put, this book is essential reading for all those interested in the securitization of information technologies in the digital age"

    Duncan B. Hollis, Laura H. Carnell Professor of Law, Temple University Law School, United States

    "AI is set to become a constitutional component of economic, political, and military power. But in what ways? This timely book provides us with the necessary cross-disciplinary expertise to understand what is at stake when AI mingles with cyber conflict and how the international community should react to reduce the risks of the AI transformation."

    Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Deputy for Research and Teaching at the Center for Security Studies (CSS) and Senior Lecturer for Security Politics at ETH Zurich, Switzerland