This book critically engages with the idea of decentralization as empowering cities and their residents to act innovatively and creatively. The contributions thus highlight how the term ‘empowerment’ in the context of decentralization regimes masks a competing array of intentions and agendas. Who and what are ‘empowered’, given a ‘voice’ and allowed to ‘participate’ via the processes and structures of decentralization (and to what ends) are too frequently assumed in normative conversations about ‘bringing government closer to the people’ and ‘community driven development’. Creating an illusion of a shared language and common set of priorities therefore obscures more complex realities, particularly when there is a disconnect between the official goals of decentralization and civil society aspirations that reinforces politics of exclusion at the grassroots. Equally, official processes of decentralization can, and often are, accompanied by less visible processes of ‘recentralization’ through the reassertion of central state control over putatively autonomous jurisdictions. Through studies in six Asian countries (India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand and Japan) the essays in this book examine cases whereby a range of urban actors and institutions have been ‘empowered’ via decentralization, and how this realignment of local power relations impacts upon the dynamics of urban governance, albeit not always in socially progressive ways.
This book was published as a special issue of Space and Polity.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Asian Cities in an Era of Decentralisation 2. Decentralisation, Power and Networked Governance Practices in Metro Manila 3. Fields of Gold: Empowering Local Officials to Catalyse Rural-to-urban Development in Tarlac Province, The Philippines 4. Decentralisation and Local Government Innovation in Providing Urban Services for the Poor in South and South-east Asia 5. Effective Decentralisation—Going beyond Reconciled Planning Scales and Capacities: The Need to Recognise Specific Socio-political Drivers 6. Urban Renewal, Fiscal Deficit and the Politics of Decentralisation: The Case of the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission in India 7. Parallel Structures of Decentralisation in the Mega City Context of Urban India: Participation or Exclusion? 8. Community Bus in Tokyo: Promoting Community Initiative through Decentralisation
Michelle Ann Miller is a Research Fellow at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. She has authored, edited or co-edited a number of books including: Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia: Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh (Routledge, 2009); Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia (ISEAS, 2012); and Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Asia: Inclusion or Exclusion? (Routledge, 2012).
Tim Bunnell is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography and at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. He has written extensively on urban transformation in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysia and, more recently, in Indonesia.