Asphaltenes : Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils book cover
1st Edition

Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils

ISBN 9781138198951
Published November 29, 2017 by CRC Press
461 Pages 231 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

During the upgrading of heavy petroleum, asphaltene is the most problematic impurity since it is the main cause of catalyst deactivation and sediments formation. Exploring many aspects related to asphaltenes composition and conversion, Asphaltenes: Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils highlights the various changes that these heavy and complex molecules undergo during catalytic hydroprocessing.

After defining and characterizing asphaltene structure, the book examines the composition of petroleum and the processes and catalysts for upgrading heavy oils. It then details the characterization of asphaltenes after hydroprocessing and the effect of reaction conditions on their structures. The authors also analyze the deactivation and characterization of spent hydroprocessing catalysts as well as the role played by asphaltenes. They cover sediments formation during hydroprocessing and the role of asphaltenes on it. The final chapters describe the hydrocracking and kinetics of asphaltenes and the fractionation of heavy crudes and asphaltenes.

Due to the increasing production of heavy crude oils, asphaltene has become one of the most studied molecules. This book provides a deep understanding of how asphaltenes transform during hydroprocessing, offering insight on designing catalysts and processing for the upgrading of heavy oils.

Table of Contents

Definition and Structure of Asphaltenes


Variables Affecting the Asphaltenes Precipitation

Reversibility of Asphaltenes Precipitation

Elemental Composition of Asphaltenes

Asphaltenes Density

Characterization of Asphaltenes

Role of Resins in Stabilizing Asphaltenes

Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils


Composition of Heavy Petroleum Feeds

Upgrading of Heavy Oils

Components of Hydroprocessing Catalyst

Effect of Catalyst Properties on Hydroprocessing Activities

Catalyst Life (Catalyst Stability)

Changes in Asphaltenes during Hydrotreating


Asphaltenes Characterization after Hydrotreating

Influence of Reaction Conditions on Asphaltene Structure

Catalyst Deactivation due to Asphaltenes


Origin of Coke, Mechanism of Its Formation, and Properties

The Role of the Asphaltenes in Coke Formation

Catalyst Deactivation in Fixed-Bed Reactors

Influence of Coke and Metals Deposition on Catalyst Deactivation during Hydroprocessing

Characterization of Spent Catalysts

Effect of Reaction Conditions on Catalyst Deactivation

Catalyst Formulation and Its Effect on Asphaltenes Conversion

Alternatives Approaches for Preventing Coke Deposition

Regeneration and Rejuvenation of Spent Catalyst

Sediments Formation


Sediments Analysis or Sediment Tests

Possible Reaction Mechanism and Compatibilities between the Components

Role of Catalyst and Feed on Sediments Formation

Effect of Hydroprocessing Reaction Conditions on Sediment Formation

Presumptions and Remedies for Sediment Formation

Hydrocracking and Kinetics of Asphaltenes


Effect of Reaction Conditions on Asphaltene Hydrocracking

Reaction Pathways of Asphaltene Hydrocracking

Kinetic Modeling of Asphaltenes Hydrocracking

Fractionation of Heavy Crudes and Asphaltenes


Distillation and Separation of Crude Oil Fractionation of Asphaltenes by Different Techniques

Structure and Composition of Crude and Asphaltenes after


Concluding Remarks and References appear at the end of each chapter.

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Jorge Ancheyta is an R&D Project Leader in the Mexican Institute of Petroleum and a professor in the School of Chemical Engineering and Extractive Industries at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, Mexico.

Fernando Trejo is a researcher in the Center of Research in Applied Science and Advanced Technology at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, Mexico.

Mohan Singh Rana works at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research in Ahmadi, Kuwait.


...(the authors) have impressive credentials in the field, have co-authored this much-needed volume on an impurity found in upgrading crude oil and the science and practice necessary for its refinement.

Book News, June 2010