1st Edition

Asphaltenes Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils

    461 Pages 231 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    461 Pages 231 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    During the upgrading of heavy petroleum, asphaltene is the most problematic impurity since it is the main cause of catalyst deactivation and sediments formation. Exploring many aspects related to asphaltenes composition and conversion, Asphaltenes: Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils highlights the various changes that these heavy and complex molecules undergo during catalytic hydroprocessing.

    After defining and characterizing asphaltene structure, the book examines the composition of petroleum and the processes and catalysts for upgrading heavy oils. It then details the characterization of asphaltenes after hydroprocessing and the effect of reaction conditions on their structures. The authors also analyze the deactivation and characterization of spent hydroprocessing catalysts as well as the role played by asphaltenes. They cover sediments formation during hydroprocessing and the role of asphaltenes on it. The final chapters describe the hydrocracking and kinetics of asphaltenes and the fractionation of heavy crudes and asphaltenes.

    Due to the increasing production of heavy crude oils, asphaltene has become one of the most studied molecules. This book provides a deep understanding of how asphaltenes transform during hydroprocessing, offering insight on designing catalysts and processing for the upgrading of heavy oils.

    Definition and Structure of Asphaltenes


    Variables Affecting the Asphaltenes Precipitation

    Reversibility of Asphaltenes Precipitation

    Elemental Composition of Asphaltenes

    Asphaltenes Density

    Characterization of Asphaltenes

    Role of Resins in Stabilizing Asphaltenes

    Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils


    Composition of Heavy Petroleum Feeds

    Upgrading of Heavy Oils

    Components of Hydroprocessing Catalyst

    Effect of Catalyst Properties on Hydroprocessing Activities

    Catalyst Life (Catalyst Stability)

    Changes in Asphaltenes during Hydrotreating


    Asphaltenes Characterization after Hydrotreating

    Influence of Reaction Conditions on Asphaltene Structure

    Catalyst Deactivation due to Asphaltenes


    Origin of Coke, Mechanism of Its Formation, and Properties

    The Role of the Asphaltenes in Coke Formation

    Catalyst Deactivation in Fixed-Bed Reactors

    Influence of Coke and Metals Deposition on Catalyst Deactivation during Hydroprocessing

    Characterization of Spent Catalysts

    Effect of Reaction Conditions on Catalyst Deactivation

    Catalyst Formulation and Its Effect on Asphaltenes Conversion

    Alternatives Approaches for Preventing Coke Deposition

    Regeneration and Rejuvenation of Spent Catalyst

    Sediments Formation


    Sediments Analysis or Sediment Tests

    Possible Reaction Mechanism and Compatibilities between the Components

    Role of Catalyst and Feed on Sediments Formation

    Effect of Hydroprocessing Reaction Conditions on Sediment Formation

    Presumptions and Remedies for Sediment Formation

    Hydrocracking and Kinetics of Asphaltenes


    Effect of Reaction Conditions on Asphaltene Hydrocracking

    Reaction Pathways of Asphaltene Hydrocracking

    Kinetic Modeling of Asphaltenes Hydrocracking

    Fractionation of Heavy Crudes and Asphaltenes


    Distillation and Separation of Crude Oil Fractionation of Asphaltenes by Different Techniques

    Structure and Composition of Crude and Asphaltenes after


    Concluding Remarks and References appear at the end of each chapter.


    Jorge Ancheyta is an R&D Project Leader in the Mexican Institute of Petroleum and a professor in the School of Chemical Engineering and Extractive Industries at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Fernando Trejo is a researcher in the Center of Research in Applied Science and Advanced Technology at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Mohan Singh Rana works at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research in Ahmadi, Kuwait.

    ...(the authors) have impressive credentials in the field, have co-authored this much-needed volume on an impurity found in upgrading crude oil and the science and practice necessary for its refinement.

    Book News, June 2010