Atomic Force Microscopy: Fundamental Concepts and Laboratory Investigations, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Atomic Force Microscopy

Fundamental Concepts and Laboratory Investigations, 1st Edition

By Wesley C. Sanders

CRC Press

152 pages | 89 B/W Illus.

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Description

This book focuses primarily on the atomic force microscope, and serves as a reference for students, postdocs, and researchers using atomic force microscopes for the first time. In addition, this book can serve as the primary text for a semester long, introductory course in atomic force microscopy. There are a few algebra-based mathematical relationships included in this book that describe the mechanical properties, behaviors, and intermolecular forces associated with probes used in atomic force microscopy. To add, relevant figures, tables, and illustrations are in each chapter in an effort to provide additional information and interest. This book includes suggested laboratory investigations that provide an opportunity to explore the versatility of the atomic force microscope. These laboratory exercises include opportunities for experimenters to explore force curves, surface roughness, friction loops, conductivity imaging, and phase imaging.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. Introduction to Atomic Force Microscopy

1.0 – Key Objectives

1.1 – Scanning Probe Microscope Overview

1.2 – AFM Description

1.2.1 – AFM Components

1.3 – Basic AFM Operation

1.3.1 – AFM Modes

1.3.2 – Feedback Electronics

1.3.3 – Laser Beam Detection

1.4 – Forces in AFM

1.5 – AFM Applications

1.6 – AFM Lithography

1.6.1 – Nanoshaving

1.6.2 – Nanografting

1.6.3 – Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN)

1.7 – End-of-Chapter Questions

1.8 – References

Chapter 2. Tip – Sample Forces

2.0 – Key Objectives

2.1 – Introduction

2.2 – Van der Waals Forces

2.3 – Repulsive Forces

2.4 – Capillary Forces

2.5 – Force Curves

2.5.1 – Force Spectroscopy

2.6 – Laboratory Exercise: Force Curve Analysis of Metallized Polymer Patterns

2.6.1 – Laboratory Objectives

2.6.2 – Materials and Procedures

2.6.3 – Sample Data and Results

2.7 – Post-Lab Questions

2.8 – End-of-Chapter Questions

2.9 – References

Chapter 3. – AFM Electronics

3.0 – Key Objectives

3.1 – Analog and Digital Electronics

3.2 – AFM Components

3.2.1 – Photodiode

3.2.2 – Scanner

3.2.2.1 – Scanner Materials

3.2.2.2 – Piezotube Geometry

3.2.2.3 – Scanner Nonlinearities

3.2.3 – Motors

3.3 – Feedback Loop

3.3.1 – Proportional and Integral Gains

3.4 – AFM Parameters

3.5 – End-of-Chapter Questions

3.6 – References

Chapter 4. – AFM Cantilevers and Probes

4.0 – Key Objectives

4.1 – Probe Characteristics

4.2 – Tip Geometry

4.3 – Cantilever Characteristics

4.4 – Mechanical Properties of Cantilevers

4.4.1 – Spring Constants

4.4.2 – Resonance Frequency of Cantilever

4.5 – Probe Fabrication

4.6 – End-of-Chapter Questions

4.7 – References

Chapter 5. Contact Mode AFM

5.0 – Key Objectives

5.1 – Contact Mode Characteristics

5.1.1 – Contact Mode Applications

5.2 – Probe Behavior in Contact Mode

5.3 – Feedback Loop Operation in Contact Mode

5.3.1 – Setpoint

5.3.2 – Deflection

5.3.3 – Feedback Loop Signals

5.4 – Surface Roughness

5.4.1 – Average Roughness

5.4.2 – RMS Roughness

5.4.3 – Additional Roughness Parameters

5.5 – Laboratory Exercise: Surface Roughness Analysis of Metallized Polymer

Patterns

5.5.1 – Laboratory Objectives

5.5.2 – Materials and Procedures

5.5.3 – Sample Data

5.6 – Post-Lab Question

5.7 – End-of-Chapter Questions

5.8 – References

Chapter 6. Lateral Force Microscopy

6.0 – Key Objectives

6.1 – Introduction

6.2 – Lateral Force Microscope Probe Behavior

6.3 – Lateral Force Microscopy Data

6.3.1 – Photodiode Response in Lateral Force Microscopy

6.3.2 – Friction Loop

6.4 – Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Nanoshaved Patterns Etched in Polymer

Films

6.4.1 – Laboratory Objectives

6.4.2 – Materials and Procedures

6.4.3 – Sample Data and Results

6.5 – Post-Lab Questions

6.6 – End-of-Chapter Questions

6.7 – References

Chapter 7. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

7.0 – Key Objectives

7.1 – CAFM Overview

7.2 – CAFM Electronics

7.3 – CAFM Probe Characteristics

7.4 – Nanoscale Impedance Microscopy

7.4.1 – Nanoscale Impedance Microscopy Data

7.5 – Laboratory Exercise: CAFM Analysis of Silver Nanowires

7.5.1 – Laboratory Objectives

7.5.2 – Materials and Procedures

7.5.3 – Sample Data

7.6 – Post-Lab Questions

7.7 – End-of-Chapter Questions

7.8 – References

Chapter 8. Oscillating Modes of AFM

8.0 – Key Objectives

8.1 – Tapping Mode

8.1.1 – Tapping Mode Operation

8.1.2 – Mechanical Properties of Tapping Mode Tips

8.1.3 – Tapping Mode Forces

8.1.4 – Tapping Mode Parameters

8.1.5 – Q –Factor

8.1.6 – Feedback Loop Operation in Oscillating Modes

8.1.7 – Lock-in Amplifier

8.2 – Non-contact Mode

8.2.1 – Non-contact Mode Forces

8.3 – Phase Imaging

8.4 – Laboratory Exercise: Phase Imaging of Metal/Polymer Nanostructures

8.4.1 – Laboratory Objectives

8.4.2 – Materials and Procedures

8.4.3 – Sample Data and Results

8.5 – Post-Lab Questions

8.6 – End-of-Chapter Questions

8.7 – References

Chapter 9. Image Processing

9.0 – Key Objectives

9.1 – Introduction

9.2 – Levelling

9.2.1 – Polynomial Fitting

9.3 – Histogram Adjust

9.4 – Filtering

9.4.1 – External Vibrations

9.4.2 – Fast Fourier Transform

9.5 – Line Profiles

9.6 – End-of-Chapter Questions

9.7 - References

About the Author

Wesley C. Sanders is currently an assistant professor at Salt Lake Community College. He teaches courses in nanotechnology, materials science, chemistry, and microscopy. While serving as an assistant professor, he has published articles in the Journal of Chemical Education describing undergraduate labs for use in introductory, nanotechnology courses.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC008010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TEC064000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Sensors