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Using the quantum approach to the subject of atomic physics, this text keeps the mathematics to the minimum needed for a clear and comprehensive understanding of the material. Beginning with an introduction and treatment of atomic structure, the book goes on to deal with quantum mechanics, atomic spectra and the theory of interaction between atoms and radiation. Continuing to more complex atoms and atomic structure in general, the book concludes with a treatment of quantum optics. Appendices deal with Rutherford scattering, calculation of spin-orbit energy, derivation of the Einstein B coefficient, the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the derivation of eigenstates in helium. The book should be of interest to undergraduate physics students at intermediate and advanced level and also to those on materials science and chemistry courses.

Preface

Main symbols used in text

1 Introduction

The existence of atoms

The size of atoms**The structure of the atom**First models - the Thomson atom

Probing the atom

The nuclear model of the atom

Comparison of the model with experiment

The impossibility of the classical nuclear atom

**The quantum mechanical picture of the atom**

The electron as a quantum particle

Schrodinger’s equation

An electron in the electric field of the nucleus

Electron eigenfunctions

The physical meaning of the quantum numbers

*n, l, m*

The hydrogen atom

**Atomic spectra**

Spectroscopy as a source of information about atoms

The general characteristics of gas discharge spectra

The hydrogen spectrum

Hydrogen-like spectra

Fine structure in hydrogen an hydrogen-like spectra

**Fine structure of spectral lines and electron spin**

Fine structure in the hydrogen spectrum

Calculation of the spin-orbit coupling energy

The quantized electron spin

Other causes of fine structure

The widths of spectral lines

**the interaction of atoms and radiation**

Absorption and emission of radiation

Equilibrium between atoms and the radiation field

The physics of the

*A*and

*B*coefficients

Physical model of the field-atom interaction

Fermi’s ‘golden rule’ for transitions

Allowed an forbidden transitions

Allowed and forbidden transitions

Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission and the quantization of the e.m. field

States of the quantized radiation field

The photon

**More complex atoms**

Schrodinger’s equation for more complex systems

The pauli exclusion principle

The Aufbau principle and electron configurations

The periodic table

**The helium atom and term symbols for complex atoms**

Spectra and energy level diagrams for helium

Eigenfunctions for the helium electrons – singlet and triplet states

Energy eigenvalues

The effect of the electron – electron interaction

Term symbols and fine structure

Hund’s rules for energy level splitting

**Further discussion of atomic structure**

Hydrogen-like atoms

Helium-like atoms

The structure of carbon

Other elements

The calculation of atomic orbitals

Self-consistent field calculation of eigenfunctions

The effects of spin-orbit coupling energy- coupling schemes

**The atomic physics of lasers**

Stimulated emission and amplification

The laser oscillator

Semi-classical theory of the laser

Mode interactions

Quantized-field laser theory

Practical atomic gas lasers

The argon ion laser

The helium-neon laser

**Atoms in external fields**

The Stern-Gerlach experiment

Atoms in homogeneous magnetic fields – the Zeeman effect

Strong magnetic fields – the Paschen-Back effect

Atoms in static electric fields – the Stark Effect

Intense electromagnetic fields – Ravi oscillation

Atomic bean experiments

The Lamb shift in hydrogen

**Single atom experiments**

Experiments on single electrons and ions

Trapping neutral atoms

The quantum ‘watched pot’

Cavity quantum electrodynamics

**Appendix A Rutherford’s scattering formula**

Appendix B Angular momentum operators

Appendix C Time-independent perturbation theory

Appendix D Time-dependent perturbation theory – the calculation of the Einstein

Appendix E Quantization of the electromagnetic field

Appendix F the Pauli exclusion principle

Appendix G Eigenstates in helium

Appendix H Exercises

Appendix I Further reading

Appendix J Useful constants

Index

Appendix B Angular momentum operators

Appendix C Time-independent perturbation theory

Appendix D Time-dependent perturbation theory – the calculation of the Einstein

*B*coefficientAppendix E Quantization of the electromagnetic field

Appendix F the Pauli exclusion principle

Appendix G Eigenstates in helium

Appendix H Exercises

Appendix I Further reading

Appendix J Useful constants

Index