1st Edition

Atomic Physics

By D.C.G Jones Copyright 1997
    188 Pages
    by CRC Press

    by CRC Press

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    Using the quantum approach to the subject of atomic physics, this text keeps the mathematics to the minimum needed for a clear and comprehensive understanding of the material. Beginning with an introduction and treatment of atomic structure, the book goes on to deal with quantum mechanics, atomic spectra and the theory of interaction between atoms and radiation. Continuing to more complex atoms and atomic structure in general, the book concludes with a treatment of quantum optics. Appendices deal with Rutherford scattering, calculation of spin-orbit energy, derivation of the Einstein B coefficient, the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the derivation of eigenstates in helium. The book should be of interest to undergraduate physics students at intermediate and advanced level and also to those on materials science and chemistry courses.

    Main symbols used in text
    1 Introduction
    The existence of atoms
    The size of atoms
    The structure of the atom
    First models - the Thomson atom
    Probing the atom
    The nuclear model of the atom
    Comparison of the model with experiment
    The impossibility of the classical nuclear atom
    The quantum mechanical picture of the atom
    The electron as a quantum particle
    Schrodinger’s equation
    An electron in the electric field of the nucleus
    Electron eigenfunctions
    The physical meaning of the quantum numbers n, l, m
    The hydrogen atom
    Atomic spectra
    Spectroscopy as a source of information about atoms
    The general characteristics of gas discharge spectra
    The hydrogen spectrum
    Hydrogen-like spectra
    Fine structure in hydrogen an hydrogen-like spectra
    Fine structure of spectral lines and electron spin
    Fine structure in the hydrogen spectrum
    Calculation of the spin-orbit coupling energy
    The quantized electron spin
    Other causes of fine structure
    The widths of spectral lines
    the interaction of atoms and radiation
    Absorption and emission of radiation
    Equilibrium between atoms and the radiation field
    The physics of the A and B coefficients
    Physical model of the field-atom interaction
    Fermi’s ‘golden rule’ for transitions
    Allowed an forbidden transitions
    Allowed and forbidden transitions
    Spontaneous emission
    Spontaneous emission and the quantization of the e.m. field
    States of the quantized radiation field
    The photon
    More complex atoms
    Schrodinger’s equation for more complex systems
    The pauli exclusion principle
    The Aufbau principle and electron configurations
    The periodic table
    The helium atom and term symbols for complex atoms
    Spectra and energy level diagrams for helium
    Eigenfunctions for the helium electrons – singlet and triplet states
    Energy eigenvalues
    The effect of the electron – electron interaction
    Term symbols and fine structure
    Hund’s rules for energy level splitting
    Further discussion of atomic structure
    Hydrogen-like atoms
    Helium-like atoms
    The structure of carbon
    Other elements
    The calculation of atomic orbitals
    Self-consistent field calculation of eigenfunctions
    The effects of spin-orbit coupling energy- coupling schemes
    The atomic physics of lasers
    Stimulated emission and amplification
    The laser oscillator
    Semi-classical theory of the laser
    Mode interactions
    Quantized-field laser theory
    Practical atomic gas lasers
    The argon ion laser
    The helium-neon laser
    Atoms in external fields
    The Stern-Gerlach experiment
    Atoms in homogeneous magnetic fields – the Zeeman effect
    Strong magnetic fields – the Paschen-Back effect
    Atoms in static electric fields – the Stark Effect
    Intense electromagnetic fields – Ravi oscillation
    Atomic bean experiments
    The Lamb shift in hydrogen
    Single atom experiments
    Experiments on single electrons and ions
    Trapping neutral atoms
    The quantum ‘watched pot’
    Cavity quantum electrodynamics
    Appendix A Rutherford’s scattering formula
    Appendix B Angular momentum operators
    Appendix C Time-independent perturbation theory
    Appendix D Time-dependent perturbation theory – the calculation of the Einstein B coefficient
    Appendix E Quantization of the electromagnetic field
    Appendix F the Pauli exclusion principle
    Appendix G Eigenstates in helium
    Appendix H Exercises
    Appendix I Further reading
    Appendix J Useful constants