1st Edition

Attachment The Fundamental Questions

    The ongoing growth of attachment research has given rise to new perspectives on classic theoretical questions as well as fruitful new debates. This unique book identifies nine central questions facing the field and invites leading authorities to address them in 46 succinct chapters. Multiple perspectives are presented on what constitutes an attachment relationship, the best ways to measure attachment security, how internal working models operate, the importance of early attachment relationships for later behavior, challenges in cross-cultural research, how attachment-based interventions work, and more. The concluding chapter by the editors delineates points of convergence and divergence among the contributions and distills important implications for future theory and research.

    1. Attachment Theory in the Twenty-First Century: Introduction to the Volume, Ross A. Thompson, Jeffry A. Simpson, & Lisa J. Berlin
    - TOPIC 1: Defining Attachment and Attachment Security
    2. Attachment as a Relationship Construct, L. Alan Sroufe
    3. What Kinds of Relationships Count as Attachment Relationships?, R. Pasco Fearon & Carlo Schuengel
    4. Attachment to Child Care Providers, Lieselotte Ahnert
    5. Defining Attachment Relationships and Attachment Security from a Personality–Social Perspective on Adult Attachment, Phillip R. Shaver & Mario Mikulincer
    6. The Nature and Developmental Origins of Attachment Security in Adulthood, Deborah Jacobvitz & Nancy Hazen
    7. Casting a Wider Net: Parents, Pair Bonds, and Other Attachment Partners in Adulthood, Ashleigh I. Aviles & Debra Zeifman
    - TOPIC 2: Measuring the Security of Attachment
    8. Categorical Assessments of Attachment: On the Ontological Relevance of Group Membership, Howard Steele & Miriam Steele
    9. Categorical or Dimensional Measures of Attachment?: Insights from Factor Analytic and Taxometric Research, K. Lee Raby, R. Chris Fraley, & Glenn I. Roisman
    10. Representational Measures of Attachment: A Secure Base Script Perspective, Theodore Waters
    11. Measuring the Security of Attachment in Adults: Narrative Assessments and Self-Report Questionnaires, Judith A. Crowell
    12. Priming Approaches, Omri Gillath & Ting Ai
    - TOPIC 3: The Nature and Function of Internal Working Models
    13. In the Service of Protection from Threat: Attachment and Internal Working Models, Jude Cassidy
    14. From Internal Working Models to Script-Like Attachment Representations, Harriet S. Waters, Theodore E. A. Waters, & Everett Waters
    15. Parental Insightfulness and Parent–Child Emotion Dialogues: Shaping Children's Internal Working Models, David Oppenheim & Nina Koren-Karie
    16. Internal Working Models as Developing Representations, Ross A. Thompson
    17. A Functional Account of Multiple Internal Working Models: Flexibility in Ranking, Structure and Content across Contexts and Time, Yuthika U. Girme & Nickola C. Overall
    - TOPIC 4: Stability and Change in the Security of Attachment
    18. The Consistency of Attachment Security across Time and Relationships, R. Chris Fraley & Keely A. Dugan
    19. Stability and Change in Attachment Security, Cathryn Booth-LaForce & Glenn I. Roisman
    20. Beyond Stability: Toward Understanding the Development of Attachment beyond Childhood, Joseph Allen
    21. Stability and Change in Adult Romantic Relationship Attachment Styles, Ramona L. Paetzold, W. Steven Rholes, & Tiffany George
    22. Change in Adult Attachment Insecurity from an Interdependence Theory Perspective, Ximena B. Arriaga & Madoka Kumashiro
    - TOPIC 5: The Continuing Influence of Early Attachment
    23. The Legacy of Early Attachments: Past, Present, Future, Glenn I. Roisman & Ashley M. Groh
    24. Attachment Security and Disorganization: Etched on the Brain?, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Anne Tharner, & Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg
    25. Early Attachment and Later Physical Health, Katie B. Ehrlich & Jude Cassidy
    26. The Continuing Influence of Early Attachment Orientations Viewed from a Personality–Social Perspective on Adult Attachment, Mario Mikulincer & Philip R. Shaver
    27. Early Attachment from the Perspective of Life History Theory, Ohad Szepsenwol & Jeffry A. Simpson
    - TOPIC 6: Culture and Attachment
    28. Attachment Theory: Fact or Fancy?, Heidi Keller
    29. Pluralities and Commonalities in Children's Relationships: Care of Efe Forager Infants as a Case Study, Gilda Morelli & Linxi Lu
    30. Attachment Theory's Universality Claims: Asking Different Questions, Judi Mesman
    31. Attachment in the Context of Human Adaptation, James Chisholm
    - TOPIC 7: Separation and Loss
    32. Losing a Parent in Early Childhood: The Impact of Disrupted Attachment, Ann Chu & Alicia F. Lieberman
    33. Attachment, Loss, and Grief Viewed from a Personality–Social Perspective on Adult Attachment, Philip R. Shaver & Mario Mikulincer
    34. The Psychological and Biological Correlates of Separation and Loss, David A. Sbarra & Antina Manvelian
    35. Breaking the Marital Ties That Bind: Divorce from a Spousal Attachment Figure, Brooke C. Feeney & Joan K. Moin
    36. Normal and Pathological Mourning: Attachment Processes in the Development of Prolonged Grief, Fiona Maccallum
    - TOPIC 8: Attachment-Based interventions
    37. Attachment-Based Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment in Children, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg & Mirjam Oosterman
    38. Mechanisms of Attachment-Based Intervention Effects on Child Outcomes, Mary Dozier & Kristin Bernard
    39. Attachment-Based Intervention Processes in Disordered Parent–Child Relationships, Sheree L. Toth, Michelle E. Alto, & Jennifer Warmingham
    40. Therapeutic Mechanisms in Attachment-Informed Psychotherapy with Adults, Alessandro Talia & Jeremy Holmes
    41. Attachment Principles as a Guide to Therapeutic Change: The Example of Emotionally Focused Therapy, Susan M. Johnson
    - TOPIC 9: Attachment, Systems, and Services
    42. Attachment and Child Care, Margaret Tresch Owen & Cynthia A. Frosch
    43. Attachment and Early Childhood Education Systems in the United States, Bridget K. Hamre & Amanda P. Williford
    44. An Attachment Theory Approach to Parental Separation, Divorce, and Child Custody, Michael E. Lamb
    45. Attachment and Child Protective Systems, Jody Todd Manly, Anna Smith, Sheree L. Toth, & Dante Cicchetti
    46. Attachment and Foster Care, Charles H. Zeanah & Mary Dozier
    47. Attachment and Early Home Visiting: Toward a More Perfect Union, Lisa J. Berlin, Allison West, & Brenda Jones Harden
    48. Concluding Commentary: Assembling the Puzzle--Interlocking Pieces, Missing Pieces, and the Emerging Picture, Ross A. Thompson, Lisa J. Berlin, & Jeffry A. Simpson
    Author Index
    Subject Index


    Ross A. Thompson, PhD, is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis, where he directs the Social and Emotional Development Lab. Dr. Thompson studies the development of positive social motivation in young children, with a focus on the influence of early relationships. He also writes on the applications of developmental science to practice and policy related to children in poverty, early childhood mental health, and early education. He is an associate editor of Child Development, past president of Zero to Three, and a recipient of the Urie Bronfenbrenner Award for Lifetime Contribution to Developmental Psychology in the Service of Science and Society from Division 7 of the American Psychological Association.

    Jeffry A. Simpson, PhD, is Distinguished University Teaching Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he directs the Doctoral Minor in Interpersonal Relationships. Dr. Simpson’s research interests center on adult attachment processes, trust, human mating, social influence, and how early developmental experiences are related to adult health, relationship functioning, and parenting outcomes. He is a past editor of Personal Relationships and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes, and has served as president of the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Lisa J. Berlin, PhD, is Professor at the University of Maryland School of Social Work. Dr. Berlin’s multidisciplinary research program cuts across human development, psychology, social work, and public health. Her studies address early child–parent attachment as well as programs and policies for families with young children, including Early Head Start, child care, and home visiting. She is especially interested in the extent to which attachment-based interventions can improve publicly funded programs designed to support early parenting and child development. Dr. Berlin has been a Zero to Three fellow and in 2019 was named among the 100 most influential contemporary social work faculty.

    "This book will prove richly rewarding to those already deeply steeped in attachment theory, research, clinical intervention, and even public policy, as well as those new to the subject. It could serve as a primary text for a graduate psychology class. The book comprises brief chapters by developmental, social, biological, and clinical psychologists who both embrace and critique attachment theory and research. It provides deep insight into such fundamental issues as conceptualization and measurement of attachment security across the life course, determinants and consequences of variation in security/insecurity and attachment state of mind, and underlying neurobiology. Classical and cutting-edge research is masterfully reported and evaluated in an effort to move the field in an interdisciplinary lifespan direction. This volume is an intellectual feast--enjoy the meal!"--Jay Belsky, PhD, Robert M. and Natalie Reid Dorn Professor, Program in Human Development, University of California, Davis

    "This is a volume of extraordinary importance for our knowledge about attachment relationships in human development, and for the application of that knowledge in systems across the lifespan and across societies. It could not be more timely as an incisive update on attachment research, which over the past decade has expanded and has been increasingly extended into neuroscience and education. Many fields will no doubt benefit from the rich insights provided by these chapters. I have no doubt that this landmark volume will be a standard reference for years to come."--Robert C. Pianta, PhD, Novartis US Foundation Professor of Education and Dean, School of Education and Human Development, University of Virginia

    "This is one of the more important books on attachment theory of the last few decades. Thompson, Simpson, and Berlin have brought together a who’s who of attachment scholars to confront nine fundamental issues. Several innovations make this a standout volume--among them, the mix of senior and emerging scholars, which leads to fresh perspectives on crucial questions, and the focused, concise chapter format. This book will serve to stimulate ideas in those familiar with the field and will be an excellent text for graduate courses on research and theory in developmental psychology."--Megan R. Gunnar, PhD, Regents Professor, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota

    "Attachment theory has grown continuously, with increasing relevance for theoretical, clinical, research, and public policy domains. Thompson, Simpson, and Berlin, together with their excellent contributors, have produced a volume of immeasurable significance. Chapters assess where the field of attachment currently stands and consider perspectives for the future. I highly recommend this comprehensive work to educators, researchers, and clinicians interested in early development."--Joy D. Osofsky, PhD, Paul J. Ramsay Endowed Chair of Psychiatry and Barbara Lemann Professor of Child Welfare, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

    "As one who has been reading and teaching and conducting research on attachment for 30-plus years, I cannot overstate this book's timeliness or value. This is exactly the book that the attachment field needs right now! And how wonderful that this theory, which has been extraordinarily generative for more than 50 years, still offers so many important questions to be explored. It was such a good idea to ask both seasoned and emerging scholars to collaborate in tackling the most fundamental questions. The editors certainly got the questions right--and the responses are penetrating and thought provoking. Every chapter is tightly focused and concise, making the book an ideal text for courses on attachment and related topics at both the graduate and advanced undergraduate levels. I am continually asked by friends and colleagues outside this area what they should read about attachment. This is the book I will be recommending!"--Cindy Hazan, PhD, Department of Psychology, Cornell University-