Orienting is the gateway to attention, the first step in processing stimulus information. This volume examines these initial stages of information intake, focusing on the sensory and motivational mechanisms that determine such phenomena as stimulus selection and inhibition, habituation, pre-attentive processing, and expectancy. Psychophysiological methods are emphasized throughout. The contributors consider analyses based on cardiovascular and electrodermal changes, reflex reactions, and neural events in the cortex and subcortex.
Stimulated by a conference lauding Frances Graham -- held before and during a recent meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, the book presents current theory and research by an international cadre of outstanding investigators. A major researcher and theorist in the field of attention for more than three decades, Dr. Graham contributes an Afterword to the present volume which is both a consideration of the work which has gone before, and a new, original theory paper on preattentive processing and attention.
Contents: R. Clifton, P. Berman, Preface. P.J. Long, R.F. Simons, M.T.Balaban, Part I:Current Investigations of the Classical Theory of Orienting and Defense. E. Sokolov, J. Cacioppo, Orienting and Defense Reflexes: Vector Coding the Cardiac Response. D. Siddle, O. Lipp, Orienting, Habituation and Information Processing: The Effects of Omission, the Role of Expectancy, and the Problem of Dishabituation. Part II:Biological and Evolutionary Foundations of Orienting, Startle, and Defense: Motivational and Emotional Factors That Modulate Attention. B. Campbell et al., Origins of Orienting and Defensive Responses: An Evolutionary Perspective. M. Davis, The Neurophysiological Basis of Acoustic Startle Modulation: Research on Fear Motivation and Sensory Gating. P. Lang, M. Bradley, B. Cutbert, Motivated Attention: Affect, Activation, and Action. E. Cook, G. Turpin, Differentiating Orienting, Startle, and Defense Responses: The Role of Affect and Its Implications for Psychopathology. A. Öhman, As Fast as the Blink of an Eye: Evolutionary Preparedness for Preattentive Processing of Threat. Part III:Startle Reflex and Electro-Cortical Studies of Attention and Stimulus Gating. H. Hoffman, Attentional Factors in the Elicitation and Modification of the Startle Reaction. S. Hackley, A.J.W. Boelhouwer, The More or Less Startling Effects of Weak Prestimulation -- Revisited: Prepulse Modulation of Multicomponent Blink Reflexes. R.F. Simons, W.M. Perlstein, A Tale of Two Reflexes: An ERP Analysis of Prepulse Inhibition and Orienting. M.E. Dawson, A.M. Schell, N.R. Swerdlow, D.L. Filion, Cognitive, Clinical and Neurophysiological Implications of Startle Modification. C.H.M. Brunia, Gating in Readiness. R. Näätänen, R. Ilmoniemi, K. Alho, Magnetoencephalography in Studies of Attention. Part IV:Studies of Attention, Affect, and Action in Child Development. M. Posner, M.K. Rothbart, G. Gerardi, L. Thomas-Thrapp, Functions of Orienting in Early Infancy. K. Berg, J. Richards, Attention Across Time in Infant Development. M.T. Balaban, N. Snidman, J. Kagan, Attention, Emotion, and Reactivity in Infancy and Early Childhood. J. Campos, R. Kermoian, D. Witherington, H. Chen, Q. Dong, Activity, Attention, and Developmental Transitions in Infancy. F.K. Graham, Afterword: Preattentive Processing and Passive and Active Attention.