The study of likes and dislikes - what social psychologists refer to as "attitudes" - has been a central focus of the field for decades. What are attitudes? How can we study and measure them scientifically? How are they formed and changed? Of what functional value, if any, are they? How do they come to influence our attention, perception, judgments, and behavior? These are among the questions that have spurred social psychological research on attitudes, and they are among the issues addressed in this volume.
The articles reprinted in this collection represent noteworthy developments in the field's understanding of attitudes. Together, the readings provide a representative and broad coverage of the literature, illustrating well what the field has come to learn about the structure, function, and consequences of attitudes.
Richard E. Petty and Russell H. Fazio
SECTION (A) Conceptualizing Attitudes
READING 1. Attitudes: A New Look at an Old Concept
Mark P. Zanna and John K. Rempel
READING 2. On the Automatic Activation of Attitudes
Russell H. Fazio, David M. Sanbonmatsu, Martha C. Powell, and Frank R. Kardes
SECTION (B) Measurement of Attitudes
READING 3. Attitudes Can Be Measured
L. L. Thurstone
READING 4. Self-Reports: How the Questions Shape the Answers
READING 5. Electromyographic Activity over Facial Muscle Regions Can Differentiate the Valence and Intensity of Affective Reactions
John T. Cacioppo, Richard E. Petty, Mary E. Losch, and Hai Sook Kim
READING 6. Variability in Automatic Activation as an Unobtrusive Measure of Racial Attitudes: A Bona Fide Pipeline?
Russell H. Fazio, Joni R. Jackson, Bridget C. Dunton, and Carol J. Williams
READING 7. Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test
Anthony G. Greenwald, Debbie E. McGhee, and Jordan L.K. Schwartz
SECTION (C) Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Bases of Attitudes
READING 8. An Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs about an Object and the Attitude toward that Object
Martin J. Fishbein
READING 9. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences
Robert B. Zajonc
READING 10. Affective-Cognitive Consistency and the Effect of Salient Behavioral Information on the Self-Perception of Attitudes
Shelly Chaiken and Mark W. Baldwin
READING 11. Assessing the Structure of Prejudicial Attitudes: The Case of Attitudes toward Homosexuals
Geoffrey Haddock, Mark P. Zanna, and Victoria M. Esses
READING 12. Thinking and Caring about Cognitive Inconsistency: When and for Whom Does Attitudinal Ambivalence Feel Uncomfortable?
Ian R. Newby-Clark, Ian McGregor, and Mark P. Zanna
PART (D) Functions of Attitudes
READING 13. The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes
READING 14. Appeals to Image and Claims about Quality: Understanding the Psychology of Advertising
Mark Snyder and Kenneth G. DeBono
READING 15. Matching Versus Mismatching Attitude Functions: Implications for Scrutiny of Persuasive Messages
Richard E. Petty and Duane T. Wegener
READING 16. Prejudice as Self-Image Maintenance: Affirming the Self through Derogating Others
Steven Fein and Steven J. Spencer
READING 17. On the Functional Value of Attitudes: The Influence of Accessible Attitudes upon the Ease and Quality of Decision Making
Russell H. Fazio, Jim Blascovich, and Denise M. Driscoll
READING 18. Thinking Too Much: Introspection Can Reduce the Quality of Preferences and Decisions
Timothy D. Wilson and Jonathan W. Schooler
SECTION (E) Impact on Perception and Judgment
READING 19. They Saw a Game: A Case Study
Albert H. Hastorf and Hadley Cantril
READING 20. Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence
Charles G. Gord, Lee Ross, and Mark R. Lepper
READING 21. The Effect of Attitude on the Recall of Personal Histories
Michael Ross, Cathy McFarland, and Garth J.O. Gletcher
READING 22. On the Orienting Value of Attitudes: Attitude Accessibility as a Determinant of an Object’s Attraction of Visual Attention
David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen and Russell H. Fazio
READING 23. Selective Exposure: Voter Information Preferences and the Watergate Affair
Paul D. Sweeney and Kathy L. Gruber
SECTION (F) Impact on Behavior
READING 24. Attitudes versus Actions
Richard T. LaPiere
READING 25. Attitude Prototypes as Determinants of Attitude-Behavior Consistency
Charles G. Lord, Mark R. Lepper, and Diane Mackie
READING 26. Attitudinal and Normative Variables as Predictors of Specific Behaviors
Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein
READING 27. Attitude Accessibility as a Moderator of the Attitude-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Relations: An Investigation of the 1984 Presidential Election
Russell H. Fazio and Carol J. Williams
“Given the need to be selective and to provide a coherent perspective on each theme within a single book, the editors have generally tackled a difficult brief extremely well. The breadth and depth make a volume suitable for use in many final-year and masters-degree courses in social psychology. It also provides an ideal introduction to top-level original research articles that should motivate students to pursue the current literature in a more targeted way. […] This is an excellent series that will provide an invaluable compendium of the themes that have dominated the 20th Century.” - Diane Houston, University of Kent, in the Times Higher Education Supplement
The aim of the series is to make available to senior undergraduate and graduate students key articles in each area of social psychology in an attractive, user-friendly format.
Many professors want to encourage their students to engage directly with research in their fields, yet this can often be daunting for students coming to detailed study of a topic for the first time.
Moreover, declining library budgets mean that articles are not always readily available, and course packs can be expensive and time-consuming to produce.
Key Readings in Social Psychology aims to address this need by providing comprehensive volumes, each one of which is edited by a senior and active researcher in the field.
Articles are carefully chosen to illustrate the way the field has developed historically as well as current issues and research directions.
Each volume has a similar structure that includes: