1st Edition

Attitudes Their Structure, Function and Consequences

Edited By Russell H. Fazio, Richard E. Petty Copyright 2008
    512 Pages 38 B/W Illustrations
    by Psychology Press

    512 Pages 38 B/W Illustrations
    by Psychology Press

    The study of likes and dislikes - what social psychologists refer to as "attitudes" - has been a central focus of the field for decades. What are attitudes? How can we study and measure them scientifically? How are they formed and changed? Of what functional value, if any, are they? How do they come to influence our attention, perception, judgments, and behavior? These are among the questions that have spurred social psychological research on attitudes, and they are among the issues addressed in this volume.

    The articles reprinted in this collection represent noteworthy developments in the field's understanding of attitudes. Together, the readings provide a representative and broad coverage of the literature, illustrating well what the field has come to learn about the structure, function, and consequences of attitudes.


    Richard E. Petty and Russell H. Fazio


    SECTION (A) Conceptualizing Attitudes

    READING 1. Attitudes: A New Look at an Old Concept

    Mark P. Zanna and John K. Rempel

    READING 2. On the Automatic Activation of Attitudes

    Russell H. Fazio, David M. Sanbonmatsu, Martha C. Powell, and Frank R. Kardes


    SECTION (B) Measurement of Attitudes

    READING 3. Attitudes Can Be Measured

    L. L. Thurstone

    READING 4. Self-Reports: How the Questions Shape the Answers

    Norbert Schwarz

    READING 5. Electromyographic Activity over Facial Muscle Regions Can Differentiate the Valence and Intensity of Affective Reactions

    John T. Cacioppo, Richard E. Petty, Mary E. Losch, and Hai Sook Kim

    READING 6. Variability in Automatic Activation as an Unobtrusive Measure of Racial Attitudes: A Bona Fide Pipeline?

    Russell H. Fazio, Joni R. Jackson, Bridget C. Dunton, and Carol J. Williams

    READING 7. Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test

    Anthony G. Greenwald, Debbie E. McGhee, and Jordan L.K. Schwartz


    SECTION (C) Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Bases of Attitudes

    READING 8. An Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs about an Object and the Attitude toward that Object

    Martin J. Fishbein

    READING 9. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences

    Robert B. Zajonc

    READING 10. Affective-Cognitive Consistency and the Effect of Salient Behavioral Information on the Self-Perception of Attitudes

    Shelly Chaiken and Mark W. Baldwin

    READING 11. Assessing the Structure of Prejudicial Attitudes: The Case of Attitudes toward Homosexuals

    Geoffrey Haddock, Mark P. Zanna, and Victoria M. Esses

    READING 12. Thinking and Caring about Cognitive Inconsistency: When and for Whom Does Attitudinal Ambivalence Feel Uncomfortable?

    Ian R. Newby-Clark, Ian McGregor, and Mark P. Zanna


    PART (D) Functions of Attitudes

    READING 13. The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes

    Daniel Katz

    READING 14. Appeals to Image and Claims about Quality: Understanding the Psychology of Advertising

    Mark Snyder and Kenneth G. DeBono

    READING 15. Matching Versus Mismatching Attitude Functions: Implications for Scrutiny of Persuasive Messages

    Richard E. Petty and Duane T. Wegener

    READING 16. Prejudice as Self-Image Maintenance: Affirming the Self through Derogating Others

    Steven Fein and Steven J. Spencer

    READING 17. On the Functional Value of Attitudes: The Influence of Accessible Attitudes upon the Ease and Quality of Decision Making

    Russell H. Fazio, Jim Blascovich, and Denise M. Driscoll

    READING 18. Thinking Too Much: Introspection Can Reduce the Quality of Preferences and Decisions

    Timothy D. Wilson and Jonathan W. Schooler


    SECTION (E) Impact on Perception and Judgment

    READING 19. They Saw a Game: A Case Study

    Albert H. Hastorf and Hadley Cantril

    READING 20. Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence

    Charles G. Gord, Lee Ross, and Mark R. Lepper

    READING 21. The Effect of Attitude on the Recall of Personal Histories

    Michael Ross, Cathy McFarland, and Garth J.O. Gletcher

    READING 22. On the Orienting Value of Attitudes: Attitude Accessibility as a Determinant of an Object’s Attraction of Visual Attention

    David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen and Russell H. Fazio

    READING 23. Selective Exposure: Voter Information Preferences and the Watergate Affair

    Paul D. Sweeney and Kathy L. Gruber


    SECTION (F) Impact on Behavior

    READING 24. Attitudes versus Actions

    Richard T. LaPiere

    READING 25. Attitude Prototypes as Determinants of Attitude-Behavior Consistency

    Charles G. Lord, Mark R. Lepper, and Diane Mackie

    READING 26. Attitudinal and Normative Variables as Predictors of Specific Behaviors

    Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein

    READING 27. Attitude Accessibility as a Moderator of the Attitude-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Relations: An Investigation of the 1984 Presidential Election

    Russell H. Fazio and Carol J. Williams


    Russell H. Fazio received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1978. He is currently the Harold E. Burtt Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University. Fazio’s program of research focuses upon attitudes, their formation, accessibility from memory, functional value, and the processes by which they influence attention, judgment, and behavior. He served as editor of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology from 1999 to 2003. He has received numerous honors, including the APA Early Career Award (1983) and the Thomas M. Ostrom Award for Outstanding Contributions to Social Cognition (2006).

    Richard E. Petty received his B.A. (with high distinction) from the University of Virginia in 1973, and his Ph.D. in social psychology from Ohio State University in 1977. He is currently Distinguished University Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University. Petty’s work focuses on attitudes, persuasion, and social cognition. He is former editor of the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and author of seven books and over 200 journal articles and chapters. He has received various honors including the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (2001) and the Society for Consumer Psychology (2000).

    "Consistent with the editors' proven record of empirical research, they surveyed 13 leading attitudes researchers to help them determine the "essential" readings from the attitudes literature to include in the text. The result is a volume of 27 readings that are a "must have" for anyone interested in attitudes. We are looking forward to Volume 2." - Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, Matthew A. Prosser and Steven M. Smith