Audio Metering : Measurements, Standards and Practice book cover
3rd Edition

Audio Metering
Measurements, Standards and Practice

ISBN 9781138909113
Published June 12, 2020 by Focal Press
428 Pages

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Book Description

In this comprehensive guide, Brixen takes the reader through the complex and confusing aspects of audio metering, imparting the knowledge and skills needed to utilize optional signal levels and produce high-quality audio.

Covering all aspects of this fundamental subject, Audio Metering: Measurements, Standards and Practice begins with the basics, such as audio definitions and digital techniques, and works up to more complex topics like hearing and psychoacoustics.

This revised and expanded third edition includes:

  • Updated information on loudness metering, covering both existing and new standards.
  • Definitions of terms such as LKFS, LUFS, gating, LRA.
  • Explanations of signal types and musical sounds and structures.
  • Further details on immersive audio.
  • Skills needed for both small-room acoustics and large auditorium sound design without loss of sound quality.
  • Descriptions of measurement signals and systems for audio and acoustic sound.
  • A chapter on listening tests from small set-ups to large-scale comparisons of PA/SR-systems.

Packed full of valuable information with a wide range of practical applications, this is the essential reference guide to audio metering for technicians, engineers, and tonmeisters, as well as sound designers working with acoustics, electroacoustics, broadcast, studio recording, sound art, archiving, audio forensics, and theatrical and live-audio setups.

Table of Contents


1 Acoustic Sound

2 From Acoustic Sound to Electrical Signals

3 Digital Representation

4 Signal Types

5 How Large is an Audio Signal

6 The dB Concept

7 The ear, hearing, and level perception

8 Time Weighting

9 Frequency Weighting and Filters

10 Determination of Loudness

11 Characteristics of Level Meters

12 The Standard Volume Indicator (VU Meter)

13 Peak Program Meter (PPM)

14 Loudness Metering

15 Calibration of Level and Loudness Meters

16 Relationships Between Scales

17 Dynamic scales

18 Polarity and phase reading

19 Display of Level Distribution

20 Multi-Channel / Immersive Audio

21 Standards and Practices

22 Summation of Audio Signals

23 Digital interface

24 Audio over IP

25 Where to Connect a Meter

26 FFT, Fast Fourier Transformation

27 Spectrum Analyzer

28 Other Measurement Systems

29 Measurement signals

30 Sound Level Meters

31 NR, NC, PNC, RNC, and RC Curves

32 Room acoustic measures

33 Listening Tests



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Eddy B. Brixen is an audio consultant and lecturer based in Denmark.