3rd Edition

Audio Metering Measurements, Standards and Practice

By Eddy Brixen Copyright 2020
    428 Pages
    by Focal Press

    428 Pages
    by Focal Press

    Continue Shopping

    In this comprehensive guide, Brixen takes the reader through the complex and confusing aspects of audio metering, imparting the knowledge and skills needed to utilize optional signal levels and produce high-quality audio.

    Covering all aspects of this fundamental subject, Audio Metering: Measurements, Standards and Practice begins with the basics, such as audio definitions and digital techniques, and works up to more complex topics like hearing and psychoacoustics.

    This revised and expanded third edition includes:

    • Updated information on loudness metering, covering both existing and new standards.
    • Definitions of terms such as LKFS, LUFS, gating, LRA.
    • Explanations of signal types and musical sounds and structures.
    • Further details on immersive audio.
    • Skills needed for both small-room acoustics and large auditorium sound design without loss of sound quality.
    • Descriptions of measurement signals and systems for audio and acoustic sound.
    • A chapter on listening tests from small set-ups to large-scale comparisons of PA/SR-systems.

    Packed full of valuable information with a wide range of practical applications, this is the essential reference guide to audio metering for technicians, engineers, and tonmeisters, as well as sound designers working with acoustics, electroacoustics, broadcast, studio recording, sound art, archiving, audio forensics, and theatrical and live-audio setups.


    1 Acoustic Sound

    2 From Acoustic Sound to Electrical Signals

    3 Digital Representation

    4 Signal Types

    5 How Large is an Audio Signal

    6 The dB Concept

    7 The ear, hearing, and level perception

    8 Time Weighting

    9 Frequency Weighting and Filters

    10 Determination of Loudness

    11 Characteristics of Level Meters

    12 The Standard Volume Indicator (VU Meter)

    13 Peak Program Meter (PPM)

    14 Loudness Metering

    15 Calibration of Level and Loudness Meters

    16 Relationships Between Scales

    17 Dynamic scales

    18 Polarity and phase reading

    19 Display of Level Distribution

    20 Multi-Channel / Immersive Audio

    21 Standards and Practices

    22 Summation of Audio Signals

    23 Digital interface

    24 Audio over IP

    25 Where to Connect a Meter

    26 FFT, Fast Fourier Transformation

    27 Spectrum Analyzer

    28 Other Measurement Systems

    29 Measurement signals

    30 Sound Level Meters

    31 NR, NC, PNC, RNC, and RC Curves

    32 Room acoustic measures

    33 Listening Tests




    Eddy B. Brixen is an audio consultant and lecturer based in Denmark.