1st Edition

Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children, Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disorders

    494 Pages 260 Color Illustrations
    by Routledge

    494 Pages 260 Color Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book is about the possibilities and achievements of children, adolescent and adults who have developmental disorders that make their development of speech difficult or very delayed and who therefor need to develop communication and language with other means than speech. For some, the difficulties are temporary in childhood, others continue to communicate with alternative communication systems through adulthood.

    This comprehensive and accessible volume offers guidance based on current knowledge about typical and atypical language development for all those supporting families and professionals involved with children, adolescents and adults who may benefit from using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems.

    The text covers all major issues and gives a thorough introduction to factors that are important when choosing communication systems, vocabularies of manual signs and graphic symbols, and guides the reader into assessment strategies, adaptation of the language environment, and the principles for teaching comprehension and use of AAC, sentence formation and conversational skills to individuals with different disabilities; including motor disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders and developmental language disorders. The volume also addresses the influence of AAC on speech development and the use of AAC to promote participation in various activities, including social media, and to reduce challenging behavior.

    The book will be essential reading for students and practising psychologists, speech and language therapists, special educators, teachers, physiotherapists and occupational therapists. The accessible guidance will also be helpful for the families of children, adolescent and adults who use augmentative and alternative communication.



    On language and speech
    The history of augmentative and alternative communication
    Individuals who need non-vocal communication systems differ
    Overview of the chapters

    1. Augmentative and alternative communication
    Manual signs
    Graphic communication symbols
    Orthographic writing
    Tangible and tactile symbols
    Choosing between manual signs and graphic communication symbols
    Usage in everyday life

    2. Communication aids
    Classes and types of communication aids
    Other areas of assistive technology
    Choosing a communication aid
    Some characteristics of aided communication

    3. Children and adults in need of augmentative and alternative communication
    Three functional groups
    The most common diagnostic groups in need of AAC
    Some common issues related to communication intervention with individuals who have severe communication disorders

    4. Assessment
    Assessment and prediction
    The AAC Pyramid: A framework for assessment and follow-up
    Assessment methods
    Starting with basic information
    General issues
    Motor skills
    Vision and hearing
    Communication and language
    Challenging behaviour
    Assessment of communication partners and environment
    Evaluating the language intervention
    Information transfer when changing school, work and home
    Putting plans into action: Defining areas of responsibility

    5. Intervention situations
    Communication situations
    Organizing instructional situations
    Planning for generalisation, maintenance and transfer of skills to new situations
    Duration and location of training sessions
    Structured or unstructured intervention situations
    Planned and unplanned language use

    6. Intervention strategies
    Evidence based practice
    Initiating AAC intervention
    Joint attention
    Implicit and explicit learning and teaching
    Usages of manual signs and graphic symbols
    Early strategies for promoting use of AAC
    Further AAC teaching strategies
    Preparatory training
    Formal education of AAC
    The problem of facilitating techniques
    AAC in bilingual environments
    The effect of AAC on speech development
    Terminating intervention with AAC

    7. The first signs and symbols
    Existing communication
    Fast mapping
    Over-extension and under-extension
    General and specific vicabulary
    Communicative success
    Motor skills
    Simple and complex concepts
    What to expect in the early phase

    8. Further vocabulary development
    Calculating the size of vocabularies
    Organizing the selection of vocabulary
    The alternative groups
    The supportive language group
    Expressive language group
    Expanding vocabulary use with combinations and polysemy
    Ready-made vocabularies
    Twenty-four principles for a developmental and balanced vocabulary
    Individual dictionaries
    From graphic symbols to orthographic script

    9. Sentence formation with manual signs or graphic symbols
    Strategies for supporting sentences with signs or symbols
    Sign or symbol order
    Inflections and grammatical signs and symbols
    Ready-made sentences
    Cognitive effort
    Language experiences
    Sentences as frames for comprehension
    Variation in language use

    10. AAC, participation and activities
    Routine activities and variation
    Dialogue plans as part of an activity
    From role play to the real world
    Interactive picture book reading
    AAC and participation in social media
    AAC in challenging circumstances

    11. Conversational skills and narratives
    Starting, changing and ending conversations
    The alternative language group
    The supportive language group
    The expressive language group

    12. The language environment
    Adapting the early and later language environment
    The simultaneous use of speech and manual signs or graphic symbols
    AAC in the family
    AAC and the peer environment
    Adult AAC users as role models
    Support of educational and other staff
    Concluding comments

    13. References


    Stephen von Tetzchner is Professor Emeritus of Developmental Psychology at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Harald Martinsen is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Kristine Stadskleiv is Professor at the Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Norway.

    This will become the next ‘go-to’ textbook for off the shelf and up to date guidance that is relevant to the vast array of children, young people and adults who benefit from AAC."
    - Janice MUrray, Department of Health Professions, Faculty of Health and Education, Manchester Metropolitan University

    "The book is accessible and unique in its focus on explanations rather than on simply recipes on "how to do it". It provides accessible yet sound reasonings behind the choice of particular form of AAC or sets of intervention strategies."
    -Gloria Soto, Professor, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, San Francisco State University

    "...the text can fill an important gap in highlighting the life-time impact of developmental disorders and the changing role of AAC across all life stages... I anticipate that it will become a key reference in most programmes where AAC is a curriculum focus..."
    -Martine M. Smith, Professor Clin. Sp. & Language Studies, School of Linguistic, Speech & Communication Sciences, Trinity College Dublin.