Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal from Low Concentrated Effluents
Study of System Configurations and Operational Features for Post-treatment of Anaerobic Effluents
On a global scale, sewage represents the main point-source of water pollution and is also the predominant source of nitrogen contamination in urban regions. The present research is focused on the study of the main challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve a successful inorganic nitrogen post-treatment of anaerobic effluents in the mainstream. The post-treatment is based on autotrophic nitrogen removal. The challenges are classified in terms of operational features and system configuration, namely: (i) the short-term effects of organic carbon source, the COD/N ratio and the temperature on the autotrophic nitrogen removal; the results from this study confirms that the Anammox activity is strongly influenced by temperature, in spite of the COD source and COD/N ratios applied. (ii) The long-term performance of the Anammox process under low nitrogen sludge loading rate (NSLR) and moderate to low temperatures; it demonstrates that NSLR affects nitrogen removal efficiency, granular size and biomass concentration of the bioreactor. (iii) The Anammox cultivation in a closed sponge-bed trickling filter (CSTF) and (iv) the autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite in a sponge-bed trickling filter (STF). Both types of Anammox sponge-bed trickling filters offer a plane technology with good nitrogen removal efficiency.
Table of Contents
1 Pollution control of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in urban zones through sewage treatment
2 Short-term effects of organic carbon source, chemical oxygen demand/N ratio and temperature on autotrophic nitrogen removal
3 Long-term performance of the Anammox process under low nitrogen sludge loading rate and moderate to low temperature
4 Anammox process in a closed sponge-bed trickling filter
5 Autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite in a sponge-bed trickling filter under natural air convection
6 Evaluation and Outlook
Javier Adrián Sánchez Guillén is originally form Panama and got his Chemical Engineering degree from the Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Mexico. Afterwards, he started working at the National Bureau of Drinking Water supply and Waste Water treatment of Panama. To expand his knowledge in the water sector he came to the Netherlands to obtain his Master in Sanitary Engineering at UNESCO-IHE. He was awarded a Fulbright fellowship Hubert Humphrey program in Water Quality-Watershed Management which he covered at Cornell University, USA, as well as a scholarship from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the International Lake Environment Committee Foundation (ILEC) to study Environmental Education Focused on Fresh Water Environment which he covered at Shiga University in Japan.
After completing his master's degree, Javier worked at the Technological University in Panama, where he was appointed as a Lecturer in the subjects of drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment in the Master of Science program. He returned to the Netherlands for a Ph.D. on the topic of autotrophic nitrogen removal from low concentrated effluents. The main objective of this research was to study system configurations and operational features for post-treatment of anaerobic effluents in the mainstream. Javier plans to continue with his research in Anammox-based technology with the purpose of contributing with the development of bioprocess for nitrogen pollution control. After about 22 years of experience in water treatment, he is currently working at the National Bureau of Drinking Water supply and Waste Water treatment of Panama.