Basic Chemistry Concepts and Exercises  book cover
1st Edition

Basic Chemistry Concepts and Exercises

ISBN 9781439813379
Published October 4, 2010 by CRC Press
472 Pages 198 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Chemistry can be a daunting subject for the uninitiated, and all too often, introductory textbooks do little to make students feel at ease with the complex subject matter. Basic Chemistry Concepts and Exercises brings the wisdom of John Kenkel’s more than 35 years of teaching experience to communicate the fundamentals of chemistry in a practical, down-to-earth manner.

Using conversational language and logically assembled graphics, the book concisely introduces each topic without overwhelming students with unnecessary detail. Example problems and end-of-chapter questions emphasize repetition of concepts, preparing students to become adept at the basics before they progress to an advanced general chemistry course. Enhanced with visualization techniques such as the first chapter’s mythical microscope, the book clarifies challenging, abstract ideas and stimulates curiosity into what can otherwise be an overwhelming topic.

Topics discussed in this reader-friendly text include:

  • Properties and structure of matter
  • Atoms, molecules, and compounds
  • The Periodic Table
  • Atomic weight, formula weights, and moles
  • Gases and solutions
  • Chemical equilibrium
  • Acids, bases, and pH
  • Organic chemicals

The appendix contains answers to the homework exercises so students can check their work and receive instant feedback as to whether they have adequately grasped the concepts before moving on to the next section. Designed to help students embrace chemistry not with trepidation, but with confidence, this solid preparatory text forms a firm foundation for more advanced chemistry training.


Table of Contents

Properties and Structure of Matter
What Chemists Do
Properties and Change
Classification of Matter
Structure and Composition of Material Substances
A Quick Look Inside the Atom
The Number of Subatomic Particles
Homework Exercises
Significant Figures, the Metric System, and Dimensional Analysis
Reading a Measuring Device
Significant Figures
Dimensional Analysis
The Metric System
Homework Exercises
Names and Formulas of Compounds
Subclassifications of Elements
Formation of Ions
Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
Other Metal Ions
Other Negative Ions
Binary Covalent Compounds
Identifying and Naming Acids
Bases and Salts
Homework Exercises
Atomic Structure
History of Theories and Experiments
The Modern Theory of Light
The Bohr Model
The Schrodinger Model
Orbital Diagrams
Electron Configuration
Homework Exercises
The Periodic Table
Mendeleev and Meyer
Descriptive Chemistry of Selected Elements
Periodicity and Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Electron Affinity
Homework Exercises
Molecular Structure
Chemical Bonding
Outermost Electrons
Simple Ionic Compounds
Simple Covalent Compounds: Slot Filling
More Complicated Covalent Compounds
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
More Complicated Ionic Compounds
Structure of Ionic Compounds
Polar Bonds and Molecules
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory
Molecular Orbitals
Homework Exercises
Atomic Weight, Formula Weight, and Moles
Atomic Weight Revisited
Molecular Weight and Formula Weight
The Mole
Percent Composition of Compounds
Derivation of Empirical Formulas
Homework Exercises
Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry
Introduction to Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
Optional Symbols
Calculations Based on Equations
Limiting Reactant
Theoretical Yield, Actual Yield, and Percent Yield
Homework Exercises
Gases and the Gas Laws
Properties of Gases
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
Gas Pressure
Boyle’s Law
Charles’ Law
Combined Gas Law
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Correction of a Gas Volume to STP
The Ideal Gas Law
Avogadro’s Law
Dalton’s Law
Vapor Pressure
Homework Exercises
Expressing Concentration
Preparing Solutions
More Terminology
Increasing Dissolution Rate
Mechanism of Dissolving
Homework Exercises
Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
Important Examples of Chemical Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Constant
The Position of the Equilibrium
The Magnitude of the Equilibrium Constant
Le Chatelier’s Principle
Effect of Concentration Change
Effect of Temperature Change
Effect of Pressure Change
Effect of Catalysts
Homework Exercises
Acids, Bases, and pH
Formulas and Strengths of Acids and Bases
General Properties of Acids and Bases
Acidity Level: pH
Measurement of pH
Theories of Acids and Bases
Reactions Involving Acids and Bases
"Add Acid to Water" Rule
Homework Exercises
Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
The Ion-Electron Method for Balancing Equations
Homework Exercises
Organic Chemicals
The Chemistry of Carbon and its Compounds
Hybridization of Orbitals
Geometry Around Bonded Carbon Atoms
Physical Properties
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
Summaries of Hydrocarbon and Oxygen Classifications
Homework Exercises
Appendix: Answers to Homework Exercises

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John Kenkel is a chemistry instructor at Southeast Community College (SCC) in Lincoln, Nebraska. Throughout his 33-year career at SCC, he has been directly involved in the education of chemistry-based laboratory technicians in a vocational program presently named Laboratory Science Technology. He has also been heavily involved in chemistry-based laboratory technician education on a national scale, having served on a number of American Chemical Society (ACS) committees, including the Committee on Technician Activities and the Coordinating Committee for the Voluntary Industry Standards project. Kenkel has been the Principal Investigator for a series of curriculum development project grants funded by the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education Program, from which three of his seven books evolved.