Basic Vacuum Technology, 2nd edition: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Basic Vacuum Technology, 2nd edition

2nd Edition

By A. Chambers

CRC Press

100 pages | 20 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780750304955
pub: 1998-01-01
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Description

Vacuum technology is widely used in many manufacturing and developmental processes and its applications grow in scope and sophistication. It is an inter-disciplinary subject, embracing aspects of mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering, chemistry, and materials science while having a broad foundation in physics. In spite of its technological importance, and perhaps because of its cross-disciplinary nature, substantial teaching and training is not widely available. Basic Vacuum Technology aims to give readers a firm foundation of fundamental knowledge about the subject and the ability to apply it.

This book is an introductory text on how to use vacuum techniques. It provides a good grounding in the basic scientific principles and concepts that underlie the production and measurement of vacua. The authors describe how these are applied in representative low, medium, high, and ultra-high vacuum systems and explain the most important practical aspects of the operation of a large variety of pumps, components, and measuring instrumentation. The book introduces numerical methods for analysis and prediction of the behavior of vacuum systems in terms of the properties of their individual elements and enables readers to recognize and resolve problems with malfunctioning systems.

Reviews

"… a very useful text which is an up-to-date introduction appropriate to new research students so that they can approach UHV equipment with confidence."

-D.K. Ross, Director, Science Research Institute, University of Salford, UK

"…much useful information on gas behaviour and surface cleaning."

-Howard Tring, BOC Edwards, Wilmington, MA, USA

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Acknowledgments

Introduction

GASES

Molecules

Bonding

Ions

Masses of atoms and molecules

Bonding, energy and temperature

Solids, liquids and gases

The kinetic description of a gas

Results from kinetic theory

Vapour pressure, evaporation and condensation

Gases and vapours

Macroscopic gas laws

Gas mixtures and partial pressures

Continuum and molecular states of gas, Knudsen, number Kn = lambda/^ID

Heat conduction in gas

Viscosity of gases

Gas-surface scattering and molecular drag

Thermal transpiration

Summary

References

GASES IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

The basic task, units and ranges of vacua

Formulas for important quantities

Qualitative description of the pumping process

Surface processes and outgassing

Gas flow - formalities

Gas flow - mechanisms

Molecular flow conductance of an aperture

Maximum speed of a pump in the molecular flow region

Molecular flow through pipes - transmission probability and conductance

Quantitative description of the pumping process

Summary

References

PUMPS

Positive displacement pumps

Kinetic pumps

Entrapment (capture) pumps

Pump selection

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE

Total pressure gauges

Hydrostatic pressure gauges

Thermal conductivity gauges

Ionisation gauges

Special gauges for the low UHV and XHV regions

Spining rotor gauge (SRG)

Calibration of vacuum gauges

Partial pressure gauges

The magnetic sector analyzer

The quadropole residual gas analyzer

Display of spectra

Interpretation of spectra

Summary

References

VACUUM MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS

Properties required

Commonly used materials

Seals

Ceramics and glasses

Pump fluids

Flanges

Fittings

Machining and construction of components

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

CLEANING

General considerations

Procedure selection

Cleaning procedures

Packaging

General cleaning techniques

Special cleaning processes

Cleaning of vacuum components and plant after use

Summary

Acknowledgements

LEAKS AND LEAK DETECTION

Real and virtual leaks

Methods of leak detection

Leak detectors

Summary

References

SYSTEMS

Simple rotary pumped system

Diffusion pumped system

A turbo molecular pumped system

Ultra-high vacuum system

A cryo-pumped system

A large fully automated, multi-pumped system

A particle accelerator pumping system

Summary

References

APPENDICES

Maximum evaporation rate from a surface

Molecular drag

Reynolds' number Re expressed in terms of throughput Q

The Knudsen cosine law

A derivation of the Knudsen formula for molecular flow through a pipe

Analysis of a simple system

Systems with distributed volume

Specifying and measuring flow

Specifying and measuring flow

The maintenance of vacuum equipment

Further Reading

Standard Graphic Symbols

List of Symbols Used in the Text

List of Units Used in the Text

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics