2nd Edition

Basic Vacuum Technology, 2nd edition



ISBN 9780750304955
Published January 1, 1998 by CRC Press
100 Pages - 20 B/W Illustrations

USD $125.00

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Book Description

Vacuum technology is widely used in many manufacturing and developmental processes and its applications grow in scope and sophistication. It is an inter-disciplinary subject, embracing aspects of mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering, chemistry, and materials science while having a broad foundation in physics. In spite of its technological importance, and perhaps because of its cross-disciplinary nature, substantial teaching and training is not widely available. Basic Vacuum Technology aims to give readers a firm foundation of fundamental knowledge about the subject and the ability to apply it.

This book is an introductory text on how to use vacuum techniques. It provides a good grounding in the basic scientific principles and concepts that underlie the production and measurement of vacua. The authors describe how these are applied in representative low, medium, high, and ultra-high vacuum systems and explain the most important practical aspects of the operation of a large variety of pumps, components, and measuring instrumentation. The book introduces numerical methods for analysis and prediction of the behavior of vacuum systems in terms of the properties of their individual elements and enables readers to recognize and resolve problems with malfunctioning systems.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Acknowledgments
Introduction

GASES
Molecules
Bonding
Ions
Masses of atoms and molecules
Bonding, energy and temperature
Solids, liquids and gases
The kinetic description of a gas
Results from kinetic theory
Vapour pressure, evaporation and condensation
Gases and vapours
Macroscopic gas laws
Gas mixtures and partial pressures
Continuum and molecular states of gas, Knudsen, number Kn = lambda/^ID
Heat conduction in gas
Viscosity of gases
Gas-surface scattering and molecular drag
Thermal transpiration
Summary
References

GASES IN VACUUM SYSTEMS
The basic task, units and ranges of vacua
Formulas for important quantities
Qualitative description of the pumping process
Surface processes and outgassing
Gas flow - formalities
Gas flow - mechanisms
Molecular flow conductance of an aperture
Maximum speed of a pump in the molecular flow region
Molecular flow through pipes - transmission probability and conductance
Quantitative description of the pumping process
Summary
References

PUMPS
Positive displacement pumps
Kinetic pumps
Entrapment (capture) pumps
Pump selection

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
Total pressure gauges
Hydrostatic pressure gauges
Thermal conductivity gauges
Ionisation gauges
Special gauges for the low UHV and XHV regions
Spining rotor gauge (SRG)
Calibration of vacuum gauges
Partial pressure gauges
The magnetic sector analyzer
The quadropole residual gas analyzer
Display of spectra
Interpretation of spectra
Summary
References

VACUUM MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
Properties required
Commonly used materials
Seals
Ceramics and glasses
Pump fluids
Flanges
Fittings
Machining and construction of components
Summary
Acknowledgements
References

CLEANING
General considerations
Procedure selection
Cleaning procedures
Packaging
General cleaning techniques
Special cleaning processes
Cleaning of vacuum components and plant after use
Summary
Acknowledgements

LEAKS AND LEAK DETECTION
Real and virtual leaks
Methods of leak detection
Leak detectors
Summary
References

SYSTEMS
Simple rotary pumped system
Diffusion pumped system
A turbo molecular pumped system
Ultra-high vacuum system
A cryo-pumped system
A large fully automated, multi-pumped system
A particle accelerator pumping system
Summary
References

APPENDICES
Maximum evaporation rate from a surface
Molecular drag
Reynolds' number Re expressed in terms of throughput Q
The Knudsen cosine law
A derivation of the Knudsen formula for molecular flow through a pipe
Analysis of a simple system
Systems with distributed volume
Specifying and measuring flow
Specifying and measuring flow
The maintenance of vacuum equipment

Further Reading
Standard Graphic Symbols
List of Symbols Used in the Text
List of Units Used in the Text
Index

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Reviews

"… a very useful text which is an up-to-date introduction appropriate to new research students so that they can approach UHV equipment with confidence."
-D.K. Ross, Director, Science Research Institute, University of Salford, UK

"…much useful information on gas behaviour and surface cleaning."
-Howard Tring, BOC Edwards, Wilmington, MA, USA