1st Edition

Bentonite Clay
Environmental Properties and Applications

ISBN 9781482243437
Published June 9, 2015 by CRC Press
360 Pages 220 B/W Illustrations

USD $210.00

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Book Description

Studies the Environmental, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical Applications of Bentonite Clay

Bentonite clay, of which members of the smectite family of clay minerals are particularly important, has proven to be effective in sealing off wastes from groundwater. Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications explores the mineralogy of clays in general and of smectites in particular that represent challenging conditions for geotechnical professionals responsible for earth dam construction, the foundations of roads and buildings, and the long-term isolation of chemical and radioactive wastes. The author, a world-renowned expert on the subject, places special emphasis on the environmental behavior of bentonite clay when focused on the isolation of hazardous wastes and also considers its use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Based on classical literature and current research and development, this text provides an in-depth introduction to bentonite soil, explains the origin of smectite-rich clays, and pinpoints where they can be found. The book describes the interaction of expandable clay minerals, gas, and fluids, followed by a description of the physical and chemical properties of smectite clay saturated with water or chemical solutions. It also provides relevant findings and conclusions concerning the function of bentonite-based sealing repositories for dangerous waste.

This text:

  • Describes the constitution of smectite minerals as a basis for understanding the behavior of smectite clays and their performance in the isolation of hazardous waste
  • Factors in the longevity of smectite clays in bentonite beds and in the form of canister-embedding buffers in repositories for deep geological disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)
  • Covers the design principles for clay seals and considers their function in the isolation of waste and redirecting groundwater flow

Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications documents the origin, properties, and characteristics of bentonite and its uses. A resource for researchers, practitioners, regulators, and policy makers, the text examines the use of clay in hazardous waste and nuclear waste management and provides readers with detailed descriptions of related technical solutions.

Table of Contents

Main Issues
Smectite clay—the muddiest type of soft clay
Stress-strain problems
Preparation of smectite clay for sealing purposes
Quality issues
Performance tests
Origin and Occurrence of Smectite Clays: Bentonites
Origin of Smectite Clays
Where Are All These Famous and Magic Clays?
Potential Smectite Resources
Are New Smectites being Formed Today?
Quality of Natural Smectite Clays for Practical Use
Nature of Smectites
The Smectite Family
The Crystal Constitution of Smectites
Chemical Composition of Natural Smectite Clays
Mineral Composition of Natural Smectite Clays
The Role of Clay Particle Charge
Clay-Fluid-Gas Systems
Physicochemical Background
Hydraulic Conductivity
Gas Conductivity
Ion Diffusion
Colloid Transport
Microbiological Filtering
Heat Transport—Thermal Properties
Couplings, Dependencies, and Interdependencies
Physical Performance of Smectite Clay Seals: Prediction and Reality
Application of Concepts of Soil Mechanics to Smectite Clay
The Role and Mechanisms of Consolidation and Creep
Fundamentals of Thermal Conditions and Performance
Evolution of Clay Seals
Clay Microstructure and its Role for the Stress-Strain Behavior of Smectite Clays
Effect of Combined Wetting and Heating of Clay Seals—The Buffer Case
Concepts and Techniques for Isolating Moderately Hazardous Waste
Concepts for Isolating Highly Radioactive Waste
Very Deep Holes
Correlation of Hydraulic and Mechanical Performances of Clay Seals
Concluding Remarks
Chemical Processes Involved in and Longevity of Smectite Buffer
Chemical Stability of Smectite Clay for Waste Isolation
Experimental Evidence
A Summary Respecting Smectite Chemistry and Mineralogy
Concluding Remarks
Processing of Clays and Preparation of Seals
Block Preparation
Clay Liners, Materials, and Principles of Construction
Clays for Rock Grouting
General Aspects on Selection and Use of Smectite Clays for Waste Isolation
Environmental Behavior
Waste Isolation by Use of Clay
VDH—Ostrich Philosophy or a Serious Alternative for HLW Disposal?
Sealing Components
SARC—The Poor Man’s Solution
Borehole Sealing
Pharmacology and Cosmetics
Origin of Life
Interaction of Smectite Clay and Organic Molecules
Interaction of Clays and Organics in Medical Treatment
Sun Protection
Clay in Cosmetology
Summary of Fundamental Properties of Smectitic Creams on Skin

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Roland Pusch received a PhD in soil mechanics in 1962 from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden, and a PhD in geology in 1970 from Stockholm University, Sweden. He was an associate professor in soil mechanics and foundation engineering at Chalmers University of Technology (1967–1974), Sweden, and a professor at the Technical University at Luleå (1974–1982), Sweden. Dr. Pusch’s academic career was paralleled by work in major consulting companies. The author of five books, including Microstructure of Smectite Clays and Engineering Performance (together with R. N. Yong) for Taylor & Francis, he has also published numerous papers.